REPORT ON BIOACCUMULATION
OF ELEMENTS TO ACCOMPANY
THE INVENTORY OF RADIONUCLIDES
IN THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

NUCLEAR TASK FORCE


TABLE OF CONTENTS


 
BACKGROUND
 
INTRODUCTION
 
PART I
   ANALYTICAL CONCEPTS
      LATITUDE ADJUSTMENT TECHNIQUES FOR NUCLIDES IN FALLOUT
      STATISTICAL APPROACHES -- COMPOSITIONAL DATA
      BIOACCUMULATION AND BIOMAGNIFICATION
         Bioaccumulation factors
         Reference elements
         Reference elements and Great Lakes data
         Biotic needs for bioaccumulation data
         Limitations of elemental composition data
         Assimilation efficiency
         A lack of comprehensive data sets
         Pre-1970 data on bioaccumulation and biomagnification
         Calcium control paradigm
         Nuclides "in" and nuclides "on" organisms
         Biomagnification of metals attached to organic molecules
         Use of nuisance species for bioaccumulation studies
      BIOUPTAKE DIRECTLY FROM ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION
         Radionuclide data from Arctic ecosystems
      BIOACCUMULATION IN SOIL MICROFLORA
      BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTIVITY
         The "metabolism of lakes"
         The "trophic cascade" concept
PART II
   BIOACCUMULATION OF SPECIFIC ELEMENTS
      TRITIUM
      GROUP Ia AND Ib ELEMENTS: SODIUM, POTASSIUM, LITHIUM, RUBIDIUM, CESIUM, FRANCIUM AND COPPER, SILVER, AND GOLD
         Sodium and potassium
         Rubidium
         Cesium
         Silver
      GROUP IIa ELEMENTS: BERYLLIUM, MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM, STRONTIUM, AND BARIUM
         Beryllium
         Calcium and Magnesium
         Strontium
         Barium
      GROUP IIb ELEMENTS: ZINC, CADMIUM, AND MERCURY
         Zinc, cadmium, and mercury
      GROUP IIIa ELEMENTS: BORON, ALUMINUM, GALLIUM, INDIUM, AND THALLIUM
         Boron
         Aluminum
      GROUP IIIb ELEMENTS: SCANDIUM, YTTRIUM, LANTHANUM, AND RARE EARTHS
         Yttrium
         Lanthanum
         Cerium
         Other Lanthanides
      GROUP IVa ELEMENTS: CARBON, SILICON, GERMANIUM, TIN, AND LEAD
         Carbon
         Silicon
         Germanium
         Tin
         Lead
      GROUPS IVb AND Vb ELEMENTS: TITANIUM, ZIRCONIUM, HAFNIUM, VANADIUM, ANTIMONY, AND TANTALUM
         Titanium
         Zirconium and niobium
         Hafnium
         Vanadium
      GROUP VIIa ELEMENTS (THE HALOGENS): FLUORINE, CHLORINE, BROMINE, IODINE, AND ASTATINE
         Fluorine
         Chlorine
         Bromine
         Iodine
      GROUP VIa ELEMENTS: SULFUR, SELENIUM, TELLURIUM, AND POLONIUM
      GROUP VIb ELEMENTS: CHROMIUM, MOLYBDENUM, AND TUNGSTEN
         Chromium
         Molybdenum
         Tungsten
      GROUP VIIb ELEMENTS: MANGANESE, TECHNETIUM, RHENIUM, IRON, RUTHENIUM, AND OSMIUM
         Iron and manganese
         Ruthenium
         Rhenium and Osmium
         Technetium
      GROUP VIIIB ELEMENTS: COBALT, RHODIUM, IRIDIUM, NICKEL, PALLADIUM, AND PLATINUM
         Cobalt
         Nickel
      TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS
CONCLUDING REMARKS
BIBLIOGRAPHY

TABLES & TEXT BOX LIST

TEXT BOX 1 PROPERTIES OF RADIONUCLIDES THAT WOULD DIMINISH THE NEED TO ESTIMATE BIOACCUMULATION AND BIOMAGNIFICATION PARAMETERS
TABLE 1 CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS FOR REQUIRING ESTIMATES OF BIOACCUMULATION AND BIOMAGNIFICATION PARAMETERS FOR BIOTA OF THE GREAT LAKES
TEXT BOX 2 FACTORS AFFECTING OBSERVATION OF STEADY STATES IN BIOACCUMULATION PROCESSES
TEXT BOX 3 BIOACCUMULATION FACTOR AND BIOMAGNIFICATION FACTOR FORMULAS
TEXT BOX 4 QUESTIONS TO ASSESS THE QUALITY OF DATA USED TO EVALUATE BIOACCUMULATION AND BIOMAGNIFICATION
TEXT BOX 5 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ASSIMILATION EFFICIENCY AND BIOACCUMULATION FACTORS
TABLE 2 FRESHWATER BIOACCUMULATION FACTORS FOR VARIOUS ELEMENTS
TABLE 3 CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF A TROPICAL GROUND LICHEN
TABLE 4 NATURALLY OCCURRING RADIONUCLIDES IN LICHENS AND MOSSES FROM A FOREST IN WASHINGTON STATE, 1966-1967
TABLE 5a RADIONUCLIDES IN ARCTIC BIOTA (LICHENS AND MOSSES)
TABLE 5b ELEMENTAL ANALYSES (INCLUDING RADIONUCLIDES) OF ARCTIC BIOTA
TABLE 6 UPTAKE OF UNIVALENT ELEMENTS: Na, K, Li, Rb, Cs, Ag, Cl, Br, AND I BY AQUATIC BIOTA PART I. LINSLEY POND
TABLE 7a UPTAKE OF UNIVALENT ELEMENTS: Na, K, Li, Rb, Cs, Ag, Cl, Br, AND I BY AQUATIC BIOTA PART II. CULTURES
TABLE 7b UPTAKE OF UNIVALENT ELEMENTS: Na, K, Li, Rb, Cs, Ag, Cl, Br, AND I BY AQUATIC BIOTA PART III. OTHER STUDIES
TABLE 8 ELEMENTAL ANALYSES (INCLUDING RADIONUCLIDES) OF ARCTIC BIOTA
TABLE 9 CESIUM ACCUMULATION IN GREAT LAKES BIOTA PART I -- 137 Cs IN GREAT LAKES FISHES
TABLE 10 CESIUM ACCUMULATION IN GREAT LAKES BIOTA PART II -- 137 Cs IN GREAT LAKES FISHES: STUDIES AT HWR NUCLEAR GENERATING STATIONS
TEXT BOX 6 RADIATION DOSES RESULTING FROM RADIONUCLIDE LEVELS IN FISH (TABLE 10)
TABLE 11 UPTAKE OF GROUP IIA AND GROUP IIIA ELEMENTS: Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, B, AND Al VARIOUS STUDIES
TABLE 12a ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF THE BIOTA FROM LAKES IN THE CANADIAN SHIELD. PART I -- UPTAKE OF STRONTIUM, BARIUM AND RELATED ELEMENTS BY NET PLANKTON
TABLE 12b ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF THE BIOTA FROM A SERIES OF LAKES IN THE CANADIAN SHIELD -- NET ZOOPLANKTON
TABLE 13a UPTAKE OF RARE EARTH (RE) ELEMENTS AND THEIR CONGENERS BY AQUATIC BIOTA
TABLE 13b UPTAKE OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS AND THEIR CONGENERS BY AQUATIC BIOTA
TABLE 13c UPTAKE OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS AND CHEMICAL CONGENERS BY AQUATIC BIOTA
TABLE 14 UPTAKE OF RARE EARTH ELEMENTS AND CHEMICAL CONGENERS BY AQUATIC BIOTA
TABLE 15 UPTAKE OF GROUP IV, V, AND VI ELEMENTS BY AQUATIC BIOTA
TABLE 16a UPTAKE OF SELECTED TRANSITION ELEMENTS BY AQUATIC BIOTA
TABLE 16b UPTAKE OF SELECTED TRANSITION ELEMENTS BY MAMMALS
TABLE 17 BIOACCUMULATION FACTORS AND BIOMAGNIFICATION FACTORS FOR VARIOUS ELEMENTS IN AQUATIC BIOTA
TABLE 18 RADIONUCLIDES IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION: 106 Ru, 137 Cs, and 40 K
TABLE 19 THORIUM IN AQUATIC ORGANISMS
TABLE 20 BIOACCUMULATION FACTORS FOR FISHES FROM LAKE HURON FOR VARIOUS ASSUMED WATER CONTENTS OF TISSUES