3,3'-Dichlorobenzidene

 

Profile Summary

3,3'-dichlorobenzidene is majorly used in the manufacture of pigments for printing ink, textiles, plastics, and crayons. It is also used as a curing agent for solid urethane plastics (polyurethane elastomers). There are strict regulations in the United States requiring its use in closed systems.

The Environmental Defense Fund ranks 3,3'-dichlorobenzidene as one of the most hazardous compounds (worst 10 percent) to ecosystems and human health. It enters the environment from industrial discharges or spills.

 

Physical Properties

Chemical Formula: C12H10Cl2N2
Molecular Weight: 253.13 g/mol
Chemical Family:
Image:
Substance Class: Benzidene/Aromatic Amine
Characteristics: gray or purple crystalline (sand-like) solid; slightly soluble in water
Vapor Pressure: 1.15 x 10-7 mm Hg at 25 C
Water Solubility:
Soil Sorption:
Synonyms: DCB; 3,3'-Dichlorobiphenyl-4,4'-ylenediamine; 4,4'-Diamino-3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl; 0,0'-Dichlorobenzidene; 3,3'-Dichloro-4,4'-Biphenyldiamine

 

Sources, Pathways, and Environmental Effects

3,3'-dichlorobenzidene has only been detected at low levels in water (<10 ppb), and has not been detected in ambient air. It is expected to exist in the particle phase in the atmosphere and is subject to dry and wet deposition. In the troposphere, the average half-life for particles is estimated to be 3.5 to 10 days; the average lifetime for particles is estimated to be 5 to 15 days.

In California, commercial printing and publishing industries are the primary stationary sources reporting emissions of this chemical. Based on data reported under California’s Air Toxics "Hot Spots" Program, total emissions of 3,3'-dichlorobenzidene from such stationary sources are estimated to be less than 1 lb per year.

Exposure can take place from the use of pressurized spray containers of paints, lacquers, and enamels containing benzidine yellow (an azo dye derived from 3,3'-dichlorobenzidene).

In water, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidene has a half-life of between 20 to 200 days. It is reported that close to 60 percent of this pollutant will eventually end up in water. The remainder will be divided between terrestrial soils and aquatic sediments. It bioaccumulates in living organisms, including fish.

A toxic chemical substance, environmental acute toxic effects can include the death of animals, birds, or fish, as well as the low growth rate or death of plants. Short-term effects are unknown.

 

Health Effects

The EPA has classified 3,3'-dichlorobenzidene as a probable human carcinogen of medium carcinogenic hazard (Group B2). California, under Proposition 65, determined this chemical to be a carcinogen as well. Human exposure is the result of inhalation or dermal contact.

 

Analysis of 1993 National Toxics Inventory Version 9801

Largest state emissions: IL, OH, AL, TX, NC, TN, SC, VA, OK, PA

Largest county emissions: Jefferson, IL; Polk, IA; Cumberland, NC; Wood, OH; Mecklenburg, NC; Summit, OH; Erie, NY; Oklahoma, OK; Ector, TX; Macon, IL

Largest source categories (only 4) based on total national emissions:

NTI Source Category Description

Total National Emissions (tons/year)

Total National Number of Emitting Counties

Total National Number of Emitting States

NTI SCC

Tire Manufacturing

5.100E-01

50

19

10375

MON - Continuous Processes

5.000E-03

1425

51

10056

Commercial Printing, Lithographic

2.000E-03

1

1

2752

Commercial Printing, Gravure

4.500E-05

1

1

2754

 

SCOTT - INSERT STATE EMISSIONS DATA CHARTS HERE

First: 1993 NTI Version 9801 State Emissions Data for 3,3'- bla

Includes: U.S. 1.4-Dich Emissions by State and Top 20 3,3'-bla Emitting States

Next: Table for 1993 NTI Version 9801 State Emissions Data for _________

Then: 1993 NTI Version 9801 U.S. County Emissions Data Chart (Top 20)

Then: Top 20 NTI ________ Emitting Counties in the U.S. Ranking Total Source Categories

TAKE "Table" and "Chart" out - make sure there is enough space in between sections

 

Controls (under construction)

 

The following section identifies regulations currently in place to control emissions for 3,3'-dichlorobenzidene at the international, federal, state, regional and local levels. Current voluntary initiatives and strategies aimed at managing such emissions are also listed. Any future plans for controls at all levels are described.

 

Current Regulations, Initiatives, and Strategies to Manage or Control 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidene

 

International

 

Federal

 

Current Federal Regulations for 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidene

CURRENT FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND PROGRAMS

 

CAA

CWA

SDWA

RCRA

SARA/EPCRA

CERCLA

Current Federal Regulations and Standards

           

Policy and Programs

· Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy (BNS): Level II Substance

Acronyms:

CAA: Clean Air Act

CWA: Clean Water Act

SDWA: Safe Drinking Water Act

RCRA: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

SARA/EPCRA: Superfund Amendment Reauthorization Act / Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act

CERCLA: Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act

 

 

U.S. States

 

California

 

New Jersey

 

Regional (Multi-State)

 

Industrial Voluntary Activities and U.S. Partnerships

 

Planned Regulations, Initiatives, and Strategies to Manage or Control 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidene

 

International

Federal

 

U.S. States

 

Regional (Multi-State)

 

Industrial Voluntary Activities and U.S. Partnerships

 

Evaluation

Data from the 1993 NTI Version 9801 indicate the main sources for 3,3'-dichlorobenzidene at the county level as coming from tire manufacturing and MON-Continuous processes. Highest emitting states ranged from the Great Lakes states (IL, OH, PA, IN, NY) to the southern east coast (AL, NC, TN, SC, VA, GA) and mid-atlantic.(TX, OK, AR). Jefferson County, IL ranked highest, emitting 0.040257032 tons/year.

TRI Data:

The 1996 Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) reported total environmental releases for Michigan only for the source category ‘chemicals and allied products.’ Total environmental releases for the state were 2 pounds, this amount originating in Muskegon County, MI, at Lomac Inc.

 

Additional Sources of Information

 

Endnotes

1 . EPA, OAQPS. UATW, TTNWeb. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidene. Http://www.epa.gov/ttn/uatw/hlthef/di-benzi.html; Sittig, M. Handbook of Toxic and Hazardous Chemicals and Carcinogens. 2nd ed. Noyes Publications, Park Ridge, NJ. 1985.; EDF. Chemical Scorecard. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidene. Http://www.scorecard.org/chemical-profiles/html/33dichlorobenzidene.html

2. EDF. Chemical Scorecard. Chemical Profile. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidene. Http://www.scorecard.org/chemical-summary.tcl?edf_substance_id=91%2d94%2d1; Health Hazard Information, http://www.mail.odsnet.com/TRIFacts/303.html

3 . EPA, OAQPS. UATW, TTNWeb. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidene. Http://www.epa.gov/ttn/uatw/hlthef/di-benzi.html

4 . EDF. Chemical Scorecard. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidene. Http://www.scorecard.org/chemical-profiles/html/33dichlorobenzidene.html; Balkanski et al., 1993; Altkinson, 1995.

5 . EDF. Chemical Scorecard. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidene. Http://www.scorecard.org/chemical-profiles/html/33dichlorobenzidene.html; ARB, 1997.

6 . EPA, OAQPS. UATW, TTNWeb. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidene. Http://www.epa.gov/ttn/uatw/hlthef/di-benzi.html; ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidene (Draft). U.S. Public Health Service., U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA. 1989.

7 . Health Hazard Information, http://www.mail.odsnet.com/TRIFacts/303.html; AQUIRE Database, ERL-Duluth, EPA.

8 . Health Hazard Information, http://www.mail.odsnet.com/TRIFacts/303.html; AQUIRE Database, ERL-Duluth, EPA.

9 . EPA, OAQPS. UATW, TTNWeb. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidene. Http://www.epa.gov/ttn/uatw/hlthef/di-benzi.html; EDF. Chemical Scorecard. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidene. Http://www.scorecard.org/chemical-profiles/html/33dichlorobenzidene.htm