Footnotes1 The Interim Report=s figureCmore than 33 millionCdid not include the over 6 million people residing in and around Chicago who use water from the Lake Michigan drainage basin.
2The Great Lakes Information Network. AAn Overview of Flows.@ Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Water Flows. http/www.great-lakes.net/envt/water/flows.html) (16 Feb 2000).
3Levels Reference Study Board (1993). Levels Reference Study, Great LakesBSt. Lawrence River Basin. Submitted to the International Joint Commission March 31, 1993. 4 Testimony of Professor Steve Foreman, University of Illinois at Chicago, in a public hearing in Gary, Indiana, on October 19, 1999. 5 Because water withdrawn for use in hydroelectric facilities is immediately returned to its source, withdrawal figures used in this report do not include withdrawals for hydroelectric purposes. 6 The interim report data were current from 1978 to 1987 for Michigan and 1992 for Ontario.
7 AUpdated Water Use Information@Cmemorandum (with accompanying data sheets) dated November 24, 1999, from Michael Donahue, Executive Director, Great Lakes Commission, to Study Team co-directors J. Hougnon and R. Pentland.
8The Great Lakes Commission has provided the Commission with more recent data from Illinois (1994), Indiana (1995), Michigan (multiyear back to 1978), Minnesota (1998), New York (1995), Ohio (1998), Pennsylvania (1994), Wisconsin (1994), and Quebec (1994). Ontario=s data remain current to 1992. 9 U.S. Geological Survey (1999). Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995. USGS Survey Circular 1200, USGS, Denver, CO.
10D. Tate and J. Harris (1999). Water Demands in the Canadian Section of the Great Lakes Basin, 1972B2021. Gaia Economic Research Associates, Ottawa. 11 The state of Michigan believes that a consumptive use rate of approximately 90 percent is a more realistic figure. The 1995 USGS data indicate that the irrigation consumption in the U.S. portion of the Great Lakes Basin is 94 percent. 12 See Section 6 for further information on groundwater. The Commission was not provided with groundwater use data for the Canadian section of the Basin. 13 T.C. Brown, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, (1999). Past and Future Freshwater Use in the United States: A Technical Document Supporting the 2000 USDA Forest Service RPA Assessment ; W.B Solley, USGS, 1999 (unpublished). Past and Future Freshwater Use in the Great Lakes Water-Resources Region, USA; Tate and Harris, op cit. 14 In 1905, Missouri filed suit in the U.S. Supreme Court to force Illinois to end the diversion. The Court ruled for Illinois. The Supreme Court first began to limit the Chicago Diversion in 1925 (Stanley A. Changnon and Mary E. Harper, "History of the Chicago Diversion," in The Lake Michigan Diversion at Chicago and Urban Drought, edited by Stanley A. Changnon, NOAA Contract 50WCNR306047, Mahomet, Illinois, 1994, pp. 16B38). 15 Figures supplied by Study Team, as derived from the Commission=s 1985 report, Great Lakes Diversions and Consumptive Uses. 16 Claire Farid, John Jackson, and Karen Clark. The Fate of the Great Lakes: Sustaining or Draining the Sweetwater Seas? Canadian Environmental Law Association and Great Lakes United, February 10, 1997. 17 In terms of volume, the Welland Canal, with an average diversion of 261 cms (9,200 cfs) is the largest intrabasin diversion in the Great Lakes Basin. Welland has been estimated to lower the mean levels of Lake Erie by 13.4 cm (5 in.), of Lakes MichiganBHuron by 5.5 cm (2 in.), and of Lake Superior by 1.8 cm (1 in.). Great Lakes Diversion and Consumptive Uses, International Joint Commission, 1985. 18 A major impetus for this study was public concern over an application from a firm called NOVA to export water via ship from Lake Superior. At a public hearing, a NOVA representative told the Commission that NOVA had neither conducted a feasibility analysis nor identified any customers for Lake Superior water at the time it sought and obtained a permit from Ontario for the bulk removal of water. Ontario later revoked the permit. 19 Hidell-Eyster International, Hingham, Mass. Great Lakes Basin, Bottled Water Markets and External Trade. A report to the International Joint Commission, November 30, 1999 (unpublished). 20 Hidell-Eyster International, Hingham, Mass. A Perspective on Water: Bottled Water Markets, and Bottled and Bulk Water Trade between the United States and Canada. A report to the International Joint Commission, July 12, 1999 (unpublished). 21 Annual data, 1991B99, on ships carrying ballast, provided by P. Vincelli, St. Lawrence Seaway Management Corporation, Cornwall, Ontario, March 1, 1999. 22 U.S. Western Water Policy Review Advisory Commission. Water in the West: Challenge for the Next Century. Report of the Commission, June 1998. NTIS, Springfield, Virginia. 23 B. G. DeCooke, J. W. Buckley, and S. J. Wright (1984). AGreat Lakes Diversions, Preliminary Assessment of Economic Impacts.@ Canadian Water Resources Journal 9(1):1B15. 24 1899 permit from the U.S. Secretary of the Army (Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899) 266 US AT431. 25 Government of Canada and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The Great Lakes: An Environmental and Resource Book. Third Edition, 1995. 26 Peter H. Gleick (1998). The World=s Water, 1998B1999: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Island Press, Covelo, California. (See pp. 200B205, water bag technology.) 27 www.wateronline.com/read/n119990830/9125. See also the report on a conference: International Water Resources Association (1999). AThe Role of Desalination in Averting a Global Water Crisis.@ Water International 24(4):395B400. 28 According to a recent study conducted by the U.S. Conference of Mayors, 4 of every 10 cities are considering some form of privatization in hopes of reducing costs and encouraging private capital investment. 29 La Compagnie Suez Lyonnaise des Eaux, a private French company, manages and operates, in varying degrees, water utilities through contractual arrangements made with municipalities, cities, and communities all over the world. They pride themselves on improved technology, improved water quality, and improved customer service while making profits. For example, one year after Lyonnaise signed the contract in Casablanca, satisfied customer approval rating increased to 80 percent, and 1,000 km of wastewater mains were scoured. Also, in the United Kingdom, Thames Water International has invested more than $1.6 billion U.S. on infrastructure. Among the improvements was the installation of new technology that detects leaks. The water that the company loses to leakage each year has declined by 31 percent since 1996. 30 British water utilities were entirely privatized in 1989. Since then, some private firms in control of water utilities in England and Wales have been convicted of pollution violations. Regulation in the water services industry is extremely inefficient, in part because the Natural Rivers Authority has to work through numerous agencies. (Some publicly owned and operated utilities in North America have also been convicted of pollution violations). 31 Environment Assessment: Proposed Increased Lake Michigan Diversion at Chicago, Illinois, Demonstration Program. U.S. Army Engineer District, Detroit. Contract No. DACW35-79-C-0036, November 1979. 32 International Joint Commission, U.S. and Canada, November 1999. Cumulative Impacts in the Great LakesBSt. Lawrence River Ecosystem. Summary paper of a workshop held September 29B30, 1999, Windsor, Ontario, in support of the International Joint Commission=s Water Uses Reference. 33 N. LeRoy Poff, J. David Allan, Mark B. Bain, James R. Karr, Karen L. Prestegaard, Brian D. Richter, Richard E. Sparks, and Julie C. Stromberg (1997). AThe Natural Flow Regime.@ BioScience 47(11):769B784.
34Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (1996). IPCC Second Assessment Synthesis of ScientificBTechnical Information Relevant to Interpreting Article 2 of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, New York. 35 L. Mortsch and F.H. Quinn (1996). AClimate Change Scenarios for Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem Studies.@ Limnology and Oceanography 41(5), 903B911. Also, T. E. Croley II (1992). CCC GCM 2xCO2 hydrological impacts on the Great Lakes. Climate, Climate Change, Water Level Forecasting and Frequency Analysis: Supporting Documents Vol. 1, Water Supply Scenarios, Task 2, Working Committee 3, IJC Levels Reference Study, Phase 11. 36 The report for the U.S. National Assessment is expected to be issued in April 2000. 37 U.S. National Assessment. AModel Intercomparisons.@ http://www.cgd.ucar.edu/naco/gcm/tmppt.html. (16 Feb 2000). Also, see B. Felzer and P. Heard (1999). APrecipitation differences amongst GCMs used for the US National Assessment.@ Journal of the American Water Resources Association 35(6):1327B1338. 38 F. H. Quinn and B. M. Lofgren (2000). AThe influence of potential greenhouse warming on Great Lakes hydrology, water levels, and water management.@ Preprints 15th Conference on Hydrology, Jan 9-14, 2000, pp. 271-274. 39 Methods of Alleviating the Adverse Consequences of Fluctuating Water Levels in the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin. International Joint Commission report to the governments of the United States and Canada, December 1993. 40 Water Use Reference Study Team Final Working Paper to the Commission on Cumulative Impacts/Risk Assessment, July 1999. 41 H. Hartmann (1990). AClimate Change Impacts on Great Lakes Levels and Flows: Energy and Transportation Implications.@ in G. Wall and M. Sanderson (eds.) Climate Change: Implications for Water and Ecological Resources. Occ. Paper no. 11. University of Waterloo, Department of Geography Publ. Series, Waterloo, Ontario, 239B246. 42 Even if water levels do not change significantly, a warming of the Lakes could significantly change the structure of the fish population, with the number of cool- and warm-water fish gradually rising and the number of cold-water fish declining. In addition, warmer climate could reduce the frequency of water-column turnovers, a development that would adversely impact fish species and their habitats by altering nutrient and dissolved oxygen distributions. 43 D. J. Holtschag and J. R. Nicholas (1998). Indirect Groundwater Discharge to the Great Lakes. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 98-579. Also see S.N. Singer, C.K. Cheng, and M.G. Scafe (1998). The Hydrogeology of Southern Ontario. Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy, Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, Toronto. 44 A. P. Visocky (1997). Water-Level Trends and Pumpage in the Deep Bedrock Aquifers in the Chicago Region, 1991B1995. Illinois State Water Survey Circular 182. 45 OECD Report (1999). The Price of Water: Trends in OECD Countries. Paris. 46 Council of Great Lakes Governors (1999). AA Statement on Protecting the Great Lakes: Managing Diversions and Bulk Water Exports. A October 15, 1999. Chicago.