TABLE 14

CARBON-14 PRODUCTION AND EMISSIONS FOR
DIFFERENT TYPES OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT TECHNOLOGIES



14 C Production Rate 14 C Emission Rate
Reactor Type Fuel Moderator and Coolant Total From the Reactor to Air

PWR
Ci·(GWe·year) -1 4-12 1-11 6-50 5-13
kBq·(GWe·year) -1 0.4 0.3 0.7 0. 3
BWR
Ci·(GWe·year) -1 11-16 4-11 15-50 11-26
kBq·(GWe·year) -1 0.6 0.4 1.0 0.4
HWR
Ci·(GWe·year) -1 20-50 320-550 450-560 270
kBq·(GWe·year) -1 1.0 20 21 10

Notes: (1) Totals reflect direct measurements from several sources not all of which quantified both fuel and moderator and coolant.

     (2) Units are either curies or kilobecquerels per gigawatt-year (the number of gigawatts of power output produced multiplied by the number of years to standardize the values across reactor types).
    (3) Most of the 14 C is emitted as radioactive carbon dioxide or radioactive methane gas. Thus, only gaseous emissions to the atmosphere appear in the table. The incorporation of radioactive carbon into molecules in the liquid effluents is less than 1% according to the original source material.
    (4) All data are based on actual measurements at power plants.
    (5) Source: IAEA (1980).

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