TABLE 13

TRITIUM PRODUCTION AND EMISSIONS FOR DIFFERENT TYPES OF NUCLEAR
POWER PLANT TECHNOLOGIES







Reactor Type

Tritium Production Rate in Reactors by



Tritium Emission Rate from Reactors
Fission Neutron activation to air to water
PWR
Ci·(GWe·year) -1 (1.4-2.0) × 10 4 (0.1-8.0) × 10 2 1.0 × 10 2 9.0 × 10 2
TBq·(GWe·year) -1 7.5 × 10 2 40 4 33
BWR
Ci·(GWe·year) -1 (1.4-2.0) × 10 4 Negligible 60 1.4 × 10 2
TBq·(GWe·year) -1 7.5 × 10 2 Negligible 2 5
HWR
Ci·(GWe·year) -1 (1.4-2.0) × 10 4 (0.6-2.4) × 10 6 (0.3-1.7) × 10 4 (2.0-7.0) × 10 3
TBq·(GWe·year) -1 7.5 × 10 2 9.0 × 10 4 6.0 × 10 2 1.5 × 10 2

Notes : (1) Fission production of tritium does not depend on the technology in the PWR, BWR, and HWR reactors. The three reactor types should produce equal levels of tritium by fission on per unit energy basis.
    (2) Units are either curies or terabecquerels per gigawatt-year (the number of gigawatts of power output multiplied by the number of years to standardize the values across reactor types).
    (3) Tritium production in the boron-based control rods in a PWR is reflected in the lower limit of the range under neutron reaction; tritium production in the boron-based control rods of the BWR is negligible and is not included. Tritium production by neutron reaction in the HWR occurs via the tritium-deuterium reaction of heavy water.
    (4) All data in the table are based on actual measurements at power plants. The original source indicates data which were inferred or estimated by other means.
    (5) Source: IAEA (1980).

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