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Absorbed dose: Energy deposited per unit mass when ionizing radiation passes through matter.

Accelerator: A device for increasing the velocity and energy of charged elementary particles, for example, electrons or protons, through application of electrical and/or magnetic forces. Accelerators have made particles move at velocities approaching the speed of light.

Actinides: A group of 15 elements with atomic number from 89 to 103 inclusive. All are radioactive and include thorium, uranium, plutonium, and amercium.

Activation: The process of making a material radioactive by bombardment with neutrons, protons, or other nuclear particles. Also called radioactivation.

Activity: The rate at which spontaneous transformations occur in the nuclei of a collection of atoms. The fundamental unit is the becquerel (Bq). One Bq is equal to one transformation per second. A traditional unit, still in use, is the curie (Ci). One Ci is equal to 3.7 10 10 or 37,000,000,000 transformations per second.

Alpha particle (symbol ): A collection of four, primary nuclear particles, two protons and two neutrons. Its composition is identical to the nucleus of a helium atom. Its expulsion from a nucleus is one of several methods for accomplishing spontaneous nuclear transformation (also called "decay" or "disintegration"). It is the least penetrating of the three types of radiation commonly emitted from radioactive material has entered a living organism.

Anthropogenic: Made by humans.

Artificial radioactivity: Man-made radioactivity produced by fission, fusion, particle bombardment, or electromagnetic irradiation.

Atom: A particle of matter indivisible by chemical means. It is the fundamental building block of the chemical elements. Atoms are electrically neutral.

Background radiation: The radiation naturally present in the environment. It includes both cosmic rays and radiation from naturally occurring radioactive materials contained in the earth and in living organisms.

Becquerel (symbol Bq): See "Activity"

Beta particle (symbol ): A particle emitted from a nucleus during a certain type of spontaneous transformation. It is physically identical to an electron but may carry a positive or negative charge. It is somewhat more penetrating than an alpha particle but still represents a relatively minor risk when emitted from a source external to a living organism.

Bioaccumulation: The ability of an organism to build up concentrations of a chemical substance from its environment.

Biological half-life: The time required for a biological system, such as a human or an animal, to eliminate, by natural processes, half the amount of a substance that has entered it.

Biomagnification: The tendency for the concentrations of a chemical substance in living organisms to increase as one moves further up the food chain.

Biosphere: The biological components of the global ecosystems.

Biota: Living organisms.

Biouptake: The uptake of substances by living organism from the environment.

Body burden: The amount of radioactive material present in the body of a man or an animal.

Boiling water reactor: A reactor in which water, used as both coolant and moderator, is allowed to boil in the core. The resulting steam can be used directly to drive a turbine.

Breeder reactor: A reactor that produces fissionable fuel as well as consuming it, especially one that creates more than it consumes.

Cladding: The outer jacket of nuclear fuel elements. It prevents corrosion of the fuel and the release of fission products into the coolant. Aluminium or its alloys, stainless steel, and zirconium alloys are common cladding materials.

Collective Effective Dose: The quantity obtained by multiplying the average effective dose or committed effective dose by the number of persons exposed to a given radiation source (unit, person-sievert; symbol, person Sv).

Committed Effective Dose: The effective dose that will be accumulated over a period of time following a single intake of radioactive material into the body. Standard periods of integration are 50 years for adults and 70 years for a lifetime exposure.

Conversion: A step in the nuclear fuel cycle where uranium oxide (UO 3 ) is converted to uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ), to be used in subsequent enrichment of the 235 isotope of uranium.

Coolant: A substance circulated through a nuclear reactor to remove or transfer heat. Common coolants are water, air, carbon dioxide, liquid sodium, and sodium-potassium alloy.

Cosmic rays: Radiation of many sorts but mostly atomic nuclei with very high energies, originating outside the earth's atmosphere. Cosmic radiation is part of the natural background radiation. Some cosmic rays are more energetic than any anthropogenic forms of radiation.

Cosmogenic: Secondary radionuclides produced by bombardment with primary cosmic rays, particularly in the upper atmosphere.

Curie: see "Activity"

Decay: The process of spontaneous transformation of a radionuclide. The decrease in the activity of a radioactive substance.

Decay Product: A radionuclide or radionuclide produced by decay. It may be formed directly from a radionuclide or as a result of a series of successive decays through several radionuclides.

Decommissioning: The act of removing a regulated facility from operation and operational regulation. This usually entails a certain amount of cleanup (decontamination).

Depleted uranium: Uranium having a smaller percentage of uranium-235 that the 0.7% found in natural uranium. It is obtained from the residues of uranium isotope separation.

Deuterium (symbol 2 H or D): An isotope of hydrogen whose nucleus contains one neutron and one proton and is therefore about twice as heavy as the nucleus of normal hydrogen, which is only a single proton. Deuterium is often referred to as heavy hydrogen; it occurs in nature as 1 atom to 6500 atoms of normal hydrogen. It is nonradioactive.

Diatoms: One-celled plants (algae) of the phylum Bacillerophyta that have a silicon shell (frustule) that remains as a fossil after the cell has died.

Dose: see "Absorbed Dose"

Ecosystem: The combination biological and non-biological interacting components that describe some system of interest.

Ecosystem Approach: The philosophy in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement that guides the development of processes, regulations, criteria, and objectives for programs and activities to meet the goals of the Agreement. The approach emphasizes the consideration of the effects and impacts of various activities and substances on all of the media and components of ecosystems in the Great Lakes.

Effective half-life: The time required for a radionuclide contained in a biological system, such as a man or an animal, to reduce its activity by half as a combined result of radioactive decay and biological elimination.

Electromagnetic radiation: Radiation consisting of associated and interacting electric and magnetic waves that travel at the speed of light. Examples are light, radio waves, gamma rays, and X-rays. All can be transmitted through a vacuum.

Electron volt (symbol eV): A unit of energy equivalent to the energy gained by an electron passing through a potential difference of one volt. It is used to quantify the amount of energy carried by all forms of ionizing radiation. Radiation emitted from nuclei during the process of spontaneous transformation generally have energies in the range of keV (= 1,000 eV) or MeV (= 1,000,000 eV)

Enrichment Factor: A ratio of activities or concentrations of an isotope in two media relative to the ratio of a standard chemical in those media.

Equivalent Dose: The quantity obtained by multiplying the absorbed dose by the appropriate radiation weighting factor to allow for the different effectiveness of the various ionizing radiations causing fatal cancers (unit, sievert; symbol, Sv).

Fallout: Air-borne particles containing radioactive material that fall to the ground following a nuclear explosion. "Local fallout" from nuclear detonations falls to the earth's surface within 24 hours after the detonation. "Tropospheric fallout" consists of material injected into the troposphere but not into the higher altitudes of the stratosphere. It does not fall out locally, but usually is deposited in relatively narrow bands around the earth at about the latitude of injection. "Stratospheric fallout" or "worldwide fallout" is that which is injected into the stratosphere and which then falls out relatively slowly over much of the earth's surface.

Fission: The splitting of a heavy nucleus into two approximately equal parts, accompanied by the release of a relatively large amount of energy and generally one or more neutrons. Fission can occur spontaneously, but usually is caused by nuclear absorption of gamma rays, neutrons, or other particles.

Fission products: The nuclei formed by the fission of heavy elements plus the radionuclides formed by the fission fragments' radioactive decay.

Foraminifera: Marine microinvertebrates that have a silicon shell, which remains as a fossil after the animal has died.

Fuel cycle: The series of steps involved in supplying fuel for nuclear power reactors. It includes mining, refining, the original fabrication of fuel elements, their use in a reactor, and radioactive waste disposal.

Gamma Rays (symbol ): Photons of electromagnetic radiation, similar to X-rays. They are usually more energetic than X-rays and are emitted from nuclei during spontaneous transformation. Gamma rays are very penetrating and are best shielded against by dense material such as lead.

Genetic effects of radiation: Radiation effects that be transferred from parent to offspring. Any radiation-caused changes in the genetic material of sex cells.

Gray (symbol Gy): See "Absorbed dose"

Half-life (physical): The time in which half the atoms of a particular radioactive substance disintegrate. Measured half-lives vary from millionths of a second to billions of years.

Heavy water (symbol D 2 O): Water containing significantly more than the natural proportion of heavy hydrogen atoms to ordinary hydrogen atoms. Heavy water is used as a moderator in some reactors, because it slows down neutrons effectively and also has a low cross section for absorption of neutrons.

Heavy-water-moderated reactor: A reactor that uses heavy water as its moderator. Heavy water is an excellent moderator and thus permits the use of inexpensive natural uranium as a fuel.

Homeostasis (homeostatic): A group of closely spaced physiological steady states for metabolic processes within which an organism, cell, tissue, or other biological components attempts to maintain itself for optimum performance.

Ion: An atom or molecule that has lost or gained one or more electrons. By this ionization it becomes electrically charged. Examples are an alpha particle, which is a helium atom minus two electrons, and a proton, which is a hydrogen atom minus its electron.

Ion exchange: A chemical process involving the reversible interchange of various ions between a solution and a solid material, usually a plastic or a resin. It is used to separate and purify chemicals, such as fission products or rare earths, in solutions.

Ionization: The process of adding one or more electrons to, or removing one or more electrons from, atoms or molecules, thereby creating ions. High temperatures, electrical discharges, or nuclear radiations can cause ionization.

Ionizing radiation: Radiation capable of dislodging one or more electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby producing ions. Examples are alpha particles, beta particles, X-rays, and gamma rays.

Isotope: Differing forms of a particular chemical element. The atoms of all forms will have the same number of protons in each nucleus and the same number of electrons surrounding the nucleus. Hence, the chemical behaviour of all forms will be essentially identical. However, each version's nuclei will have a number of neutrons that is different from any other version. Thus, the isotopes (forms) of a particular element will have different physical properties, including the mass of its atoms and whether the nuclear structure of its atoms will retain its identity indefinitely (be "stable") or undergo spontaneous transformation at some future time (be "radioactive").

Limnology: The study of inland waters, lakes, and rivers.

Lower Limit of Detection (symbol LLD): This is the lowest concentration of radioactive material in a sample that can be detected at the 95% confidence level with a given analytical system.

Macrophyte: Rooted aquatic plants.

Moderator: A material, such as ordinary water, heavy water, or graphite, used in a reactor to slow down high-velocity neutrons, thus increasing the likelihood of further fission.

Natural radioactivity: The property of radioactivity exhibited by more than 50 naturally occurring radionuclides.

Neutron: An uncharged primary nuclear particle with a mass slightly greater than the other primary nuclear particle, the proton. When emitted from a nucleus following a fission or other nuclear event, a neutron can cause ionization indirectly. A "free" neutron, normally present in our environment, is unstable and exhibits a half life of about 13 minutes.

Non-ionizing radiation: Radiation that is not capable of dislodging electrons from atoms or molecules (see ionizing radiation). Examples of non-ionizing radiation are radio waves, microwaves, and light.

Nuclear Reactor: A device in which a fission chain reaction can be initiated, maintained, and controlled. Its essential component is a core with fissionable fuel. It usually has a moderator, a reflector, shielding, coolant, and control mechanisms.

Nuclear Fission: The process in which a nucleus splits into two or more nuclei and energy is released.

Nucleus: The small, positively charged core of an atom. It is only about 1 / 10,000 the diameter of the atom but contains nearly all the atom's mass. All nuclei contain both protons and neutrons, except the nucleus of ordinary hydrogen, which consists of a single proton.

Radionuclide: A species of atom characterized by the constitution of its nucleus, which is specified by its atomic mass and atomic number (Z), or by its number of protons (Z), number of neutrons (N), and energy content.

Plutonium (symbol Pu): A heavy, metallic element with atomic number 94. An important isotope is Pu-239 produced by neutron irradiation of uranium-238. Plutonium is used in reactor fuel, weapons, and specialized mobile power sources such as space probes and heart pacemakers.

Primordial: Present since the beginning of the earth.

Proton: An elementary particle with a single positive electrical charge and a mass approximately 1837 times that of the electron. The nucleus of an ordinary or light hydrogen atom. Protons are constituents of all nuclei. The atomic number (Z) of an atom is equal to the number of protons in its nucleus.

Quality factor (QF): A factor by which an absorbed dose is multiplied to more closely correspond to a biological effect produced. Dose (Gy) QF = Dose Equivalent (Sv).

Rad: The traditional unit of absorbed dose of ionizing radiation. A dose of one rad results from the absorption of 100 ergs of energy per gram of material. It has been supplanted by the gray (Gy) which is equal to one joule/kilogram.

Radiation: The emission and propagation of energy through matter or space by means of electromagnetic disturbances, which display both wave-like and particle-like behaviour; in this context the "particles" are known as photons. Also, the energy so propagated. The term has been extended to include streams of fast-moving particles. Nuclear radiation is that emitted from atomic nuclei in various nuclear reactions, including alpha, beta, and gamma radiation and neutrons.

Radioactive Fallout: Radioactive materials deposited from the atmosphere.

Radioactive series: A succession of radionuclides, each of which transforms by radioactive disintegration into the next until a stable radionuclide results. The first member is called the parent, the intermediate members are called progeny, and the final stable member is called the end product.

Radioactive decay: The spontaneous transformation of one radionuclide into a different radionuclide or into a different energy state of the same radionuclide. The process results in a decrease, with time, of the number of the original radioactive atoms in a sample. It involves the emission from the nucleus of alpha particles, beta particles, or gamma rays; as the nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons; or fission.

Radioactivity: See "Activity."

Radioisotope: An unstable isotope (version) of a chemical element. Nuclei of atoms of such an isotope undergo spontaneous transformation and emit radiation.

Radium (symbol Ra): A radioactive metallic element with atomic number 88. As found in nature, the most common isotope has an atomic weight of 226. It occurs in minute quantities associated with uranium in pitchblende, carnotite, and other minerals; the uranium decays to radium in a series of alpha and beta emissions. By virtue of being an alpha- and gamma-emitter, radium is used as a source of luminescence and as a radiation source in medicine and radiography.

Radon (symbol Rn): A radioactive element, the heaviest of the noble or inert gases known. Its atomic number is 86, and it atomic weight is 222. It is a progeny of radium in the uranium radioactive series.

Rem: A traditional unit of dose equivalent obtained by multiplying the absorbed dose in rad by the appropriate quality factor and any other necessary modifying factors. The rem has been superseded by the seivert (Sv).

Reprocessing: The extraction of useful fissionable materials from spent reactive fuel rods.

SI units: The International System of Units as defined by the General Conference of Weights and Measures in 1960. These units are generally based on the metre/kilogram/second units, with special quantities for radiation including the becquerel, gray, and sievert.

Sievert: The SI unit of dose equivalent. It is equal to the absorbed dose in gray (Gy) times the appropriate quality factor (QF) times any other necessary modifying factors. One sievert (Sv) is equal to 100 rem.

Spallation: The splitting off of small fragments from a nucleus under bombardment by high-energy particles.

Spontaneous Fission: The spontaneous splitting of a nucleus.

Stable Nuclei: The nuclei of a non-radioactive substance.

Tailings: Waste material remaining after a useful substance has been extracted from a mineral ore.

Technologically enhanced: Refers to a situation where the concentrations of naturally-occurring radionuclides, in environmental media are increased as a result of human activities, e.g., the mining and milling of mineral ores containing radioactive substances.

Terrestrial Sources: Natural radiation sources in the earth's crust or biosphere, as opposed to sources from space.

Thorium series (sequence): The series of radionuclides resulting from the radioactive decay of thorium-232. Many anthropogenic radionuclides decay into this sequence. The end product of this sequence in nature is lead-208.

Thorium (symbol Th): A naturally radioactive element with atomic number 90 and, as found in nature, an atomic weights of approximately 232. The thorium-232 isotope is abundant and can be transmitted to fissionable uranium-233 by neutron irradiation.

Transfer Factor: The ratio at equilibrium of the concentration of a chemical substance in one biological compartment to that in another biological compartment.

Transuranic element: An element beyond uranium in the Periodic Table, that is, with an atomic number greater than 92. All 11 transuranic elements are produced artificially and are radioactive. They are neptunium, plutonium, americium, curium, berkelium, californium, einsteinium, fermium, mendelevium, nobelium, and lawrencium.

Tritium: A radioactive isotope of hydrogen with two neutrons and one proton in the nucleus. It is both naturally occurring and produced in nuclear reactors. It is used in weapons, biomedical research, and in self-illuminating devices. It has a physical half-life of 12.33 years. See tritium terminology Text Box.

Uranium Series: The series of radionuclides resulting from the radioactive decay of uranium-238, also known as the uranium-radium series. The end product of the series is lead-206. Many anthropogenic radionuclides decay into this sequence.

Uranium (symbol U): A radioactive element with the atomic number 92 and, as found in natural ores, an average atomic weight of approximately 238. The two principal natural isotopes are uranium-235 (0.7% of natural uranium), which is fissionable, and uranium-238 (99.3% of natural uranium). Natural uranium also includes a minute amount or uranium-234. Uranium is the basic raw material of nuclear energy.

X-rays: A penetrating form of electromagnetic radiation emitted either when the orbital electrons of an excited atom return to their normal state or when a target is bombarded with high-speed electrons. X-rays are always non-nuclear in origin.


Acronyms and Abbreviations

AECB: Atomic Energy Control Board (Canada)

BEIR: National Research Council's Committees on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (United States)

BWR: Boiling Water Reactor

CAMECO: CAnadian Mining and Energy Company

CANDU: CANadian Deuterium Uranium refers to the Canadian design of a nuclear power reactor, which utilizes natural uranium fuel and heavy water moderator.

DOE: Department of Energy (United States)

EPA: Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

FBR: Fast-Breeder Reactor

GCR: Gas-Cooled Reactor

GLWQB: Great Lakes Water Quality Board

HTO: tritiated water (Hydrogen - Tritium - Oxygen)

HWR: Heavy Water Reactor

IAEA: International Atomic Energy Agency

ICRP: International Commission for Radiation Protection

IJC: International Joint Commission

LLD: Lower Limit of Detection

LWR: Light Water Reactor

NCRP: National Council On Radiation Protection (United States)

NRC: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

NYSERDA: New York State Energy Research and Development Agency

PWR: Pressurized Water Reactor

QF: Quality Factor

TBT: Tissue Bound Tritium

TENR: Technologically Enhanced Natural Radioactivity

UNSCEAR: United National Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation publishes periodic reports on sources and effects of ionizing radiation.


Ac, actinium; Ag, silver; Al, aluminum; Am, americium; Ar, argon;

B, boron; Ba, barium; Be, beryllium; Bi, bismuth; Br, bromine;

C, carbon; Ca, calcium; Cd, cadmium; Ce, cerium; Cl, chlorine; Co, cobalt; Cr, chromium; Cs, cesium; Cu, copper;

F, fluorine; Fe, iron; Fr, francium;

Gd, gadolinium;

H, hydrogen; He, helium; Hf, hafnium;

I, iodine; In, indium;

K, potassium; Kr, krypton;

La, lanthanum; Lu, lutetium;

Mg, magnesium; Mn, manganese; Mo, molybdenum;

N, nitrogen; Na, sodium; Nb, niobium; Nd, neodymium; Np, neptunium;

O, oxygen;

P, phosphorus; Pa, protractinium; Pb, lead; Pd, palladium; Po, polonium; Pt, platinum; Pu, plutonium;

Ra, radium; Rb, rubidium; Re, rhenium; Rn, radon; Ru, ruthenium;

S, sulfur; Sb, antimony; Sc, scandium; Se, selenium; Si, silicon; Sm, samarium; Sn, tin; Sr, strontium;

Ta, tantalum; Tc, technetium; Te, tellurium; Th, thorium; Tl, thalium;

U, uranium;

V, vanadium;

Xe, xenon;

Y, yttrium; Yb, ytterbium;

Zn, zinc; Zr, zirconium.

Units of Measurement Bq, becquerel; mBq, millibecquerel (10 -3  Bq); kBq, kilobecquerel (10 3  Bq); MBq, megabecquerel (10 6  Bq); GBq, gigabecquerel (10 9  Bq); TBq, terabecquerel (10 12  Bq); PBq, petabecquerel (10 15  Bq);

Ci, curie; nCi, nanocurie (10 -9  Ci); Ci, microcurie (10 -6  Ci); MCi, megacuries (10 6  Ci)

dpm, disintegrations per minute

eV, electron volts; keV; kiloelectron volt (10 3  eV) ; MeV,  megaelectron volt (10 6  eV)

g, gram; g, microgram (10 -6  g); mg, milligram (10 -3  g); kg, kilogram (10 3  g)

Gy, gray

ha, hectare

hr, hour

L, litre; mL, millilitre (10 -3  L)

m, metre; cm, centimetre (10 -2  m); km, kilometre (10 3  m)

s, second

Sv, sievert; mSv, millisievert (10 -3  Sv)

V, volts W, watt; MW, megawatt (10 6  W); GW, gigawatt (10 9  W)


Terms of Reference: Nuclear Task Force

The International Joint Commission (Commission) has authorized a "Nuclear Task Force" to review, assess and report on the state of radioactivity in the Great Lakes and to carry out such other activities as the Commission may, in future, so direct.

(1) The name of the Task Force shall be the Nuclear Task Force.

(2) The Task Force shall undertake, as its initial project, a review and assessment of the status of radioactivity in the Great Lakes. This project is to be completed in connection with the current biennial Great Lakes reporting cycle. A report of this work shall be available along with the other reports at the Great Lakes Biennial Meeting. The Commission may or may not require that similar reports be prepared for subsequent Great Lakes Biennial Meetings.

(3) The Task Force shall propose such additional projects as it deems important, based in part on the following criteria: (a) Work performed on the State of Radioactivity in the Great Lakes Report. This report shall be the principal vehicle upon which to base recommendations for projects since the report has as one of its production objectives the prioritization of nuclear problems in the Great Lakes requiring analysis and remediation. (b) Concerns of the Commissioners. (c) Problems brought to the attention of the Task Force by its Members, Associates, and others in the course of its work.

(4) The Task Force shall make its first official recommendation of additional projects upon the completion of work for its first assessment of the state of radioactivity in the lakes.

(5) The Nuclear Task Force shall undertake such other projects as the Commission directs.

(6) The Task Force shall seek from the Commission directly whatever resources and funds are needed for specific projects and support.

(7) The Task Force shall consist of, at most, six 'Members' chosen from staff of the the United States and Canadian Sections and of the Regional Office and from the Water Quality Board, the Great Lakes Science Advisory Board, and the Council of Great Lakes Research Managers. In addition, the Task Force shall utilize the services of 'Associates', who are specialists in a variety of nuclear issues and who can provide assistance, support, analysis, information, data and appropriate liaison to groups outside of the Commission. There are no restrictions on the number of Associates. All members and Associates shall receive letters of appointment which specify their status and responsibilities.

(8) Members shall direct the work of the Task Force, be responsible for the production of its reports, and for the presentation of reports and views of the Task Force. Associates shall support the work of the Task Force, but will not ordinarily be called upon to present their views or the views of the Task Force to the Commission.

(9) The Commission shall appoint two co-chairs of the Nuclear Task Force and will approve associate members.

(10) The Task Force may establish whatever subgroups it deems necessary for its work. A subgroup shall be chaired by a Member.

(11) The Task Force shall report directly to the Commission.

(12) The Task Force will be sunsetted in five years.

(13) The start date of the Task Force was December 1994.


Membership of the Nuclear Task Force

Dr. Murray Clamen, Co-Chair, Canadian Section, International Joint Commission

Dr. Clamen is Secretary of the Canadian Section of the International Joint Commission (IJC) and is responsible for the day-to-day operations and management of the Section. A registered professional engineer, his expertise is in international water resource studies and environmental assessments. His career has included experience in the private sector with consulting engineering and research firms in Quebec and British Columbia and a total of 20 years in the Federal Public Service; 17 years with the IJC, and three with Environment Canada. At the IJC he has provided technical and policy advice to the Commissioners on a wide range of transboundary issues and participated in numerous Canada/U.S. studies and assessments.

Dr. Joel Fisher, Co-Chair, US Section, International Joint Commission

Dr. Fisher's environmental work began in the military service where he worked on programs to dissemble, disarm and dispose of nuclear and chemical munitions. Later at the United States Environmental Protection Agency he worked for several years on programs which addressed the environmental fate and behaviour of pollutants in the emissions from fossil fuel and nuclear power plants. At the International Joint Commission, he advises on the problems of environmental fate and behaviour of pollutants which have transboundary implications.

Dr. Rosalie Bertell, GNSH, International Institute of Concern for Public Health

Dr. Bertell has worked professionally in Environmental Epidemiology since 1968, serves on the Advisory Boards for the Great Lakes Health Effects Program of Health Canada, and the Ontario Environmental Assessment Board and has been a member of the IJC Science Advisory Board. She has published a Handbook for Estimating the Health Effects of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and the popular non-fiction book: No Immediate Danger: Prognosis for a Radioactive Earth , together with more than 100 other publications.

Dr. Bliss Tracy, Health Canada

Dr. Tracy heads a group on radiological impact at the Radiation Protection Bureau. He has carried out a number of research projects on environmental radioactivity including the uptake of radiocesium in Arctic food chains, uranium uptake and metabolism in humans, and radioactivity in Great Lakes ecosystems. Dr. Tracy provides advice regularly toward environmental impact assessments of nuclear and radioactive waste disposal facilities. He is also involved in planning for the Federal Nuclear Emergency Plan and is contributing to the design of an international monitoring system for verification of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

Mr. Robert Krauel, Environment Canada

Mr. Krauel is manager of the Environmental Contaminants and Nuclear Programs Division in Environment Canada's Ontario Regional Office. Mr. Krauel has been Coordinator of the Federal - Provincial Remedial Action Plan Team for Port Hope Harbour. He has participated in several environmental assessment reviews related to the nuclear industry, including uranium mine decommissioning, low level radioactive waste management, and uranium refining and conversion.

Dr. Walter Carey, Ohio State University

Dr. Carey is a private Consultant and a Certified Health Physicist. During 35 years at the Ohio State University, he taught courses on Zoology and Nuclear Engineering. He also served as the original Director of the Nuclear Reactor Laboratory and later as the University's Radiation Council, and is the Chair of the Council's Radiation Protection Standards Committee. He is a Diplomat of the American Academy of Health Physics, a member of Sigma Xi and an Emeritus Member of the American Nuclear Society.

Dr. John Clark, Regional Office, International Joint Commission

Dr. Clark received a doctorate in Environmental Health from the University of Cincinnati in 1970. Prior to joining the Commission's staff in 1974 he served as a Public Health Analyst and as a Statistician with the United States Public Health Service. Mr. John Clark retired in 2001.