Table 15 – Sources (a) of Dioxins, Furans, and Dioxin-like PCBs in the U.S. and Ontario (g TEQ/yr)

Source

Ontario Releases

U.S. Releases (3)

Waste Incineration

Municipal waste combustion

2.15 (1)

1,100

Hazardous waste incinerators

7.40 (1)

5.7

Boilers / industrial furnaces

0.38

Medical waste incineration

14.00 (1)

477

Sewage sludge waste incineration

0.08 (1)

6.00

Crematoria

0.24

Federal waste incinerators

2.71 (2)

Power / Energy Generation

Vehicle fuel combustion – diesel

3.11 (1)

33.5

Vehicle fuel combustion – unleaded

6.3

Wood waste combustion

0.20 (1)

29.1(c)

Residential wood combustion

0.84 (1)

62.8

Coal combustion – industrial / utility

0.69 (1)

72.8

Fuel Combustion: residential / agriculture

0.11 (1)

Oil combustion – industrial / utility

9.3

Other High Temperature Sources

Cement kilns (hazardous waste burning)

0.78 (1)

153

Cement kilns (non-hazardous waste burning)

17.8

Cigarette combustion

0.81

Combustion: Kraft liquour boilers

0.07 (1)

2.3

Minimally Controlled or uncontrolled Combustion

Forest, brush, and straw fires

208

Backyard trash / open burning

5.00 (1)

Metallurgical Processes

Iron sintering

6.00 (1)

Base metals smelting

2.90 (1)

Non-ferrous metal smelting / refining

 

 

                                                           –secondary lead smelting

0.03 (2)

1.63

–secondary copper smelting

541

–secondary aluminum smelting

17

Chemical and Manufacturing / Processing Sources

Pentachlorophenols (product)

25,000

Pulp & Paper

0.47 (2)(b)

45.0

2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (product)

18.4

Dioxazine dyes and pigments (product)

0.36

Wood preserving plants

0.02 (1)

Sewage sludge (land application)

2.55 (2)

207

Reservoir Sources

Pentachlorophenols (treated wood)

0.10 (1)

NEG

In-service utility poles & railway ties

0.79 (2)

Out-of-service utility poles (landfilled)

0.40 (2)

Sources:

(1)   Environment Canada, Canadian Inventory of Releases of PCDDs / PCDFs: Updated Edition, February 2001.

(2)   Environment Canada, April 2001 Ontario Dioxin / Furan Releases Estimates, Electronic copy provided by Anita Wong May 1, 2001.

(3)   Battelle Memorial Institute, Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy: PCDD (Dioxins) and PCDF (Furans): Sources and Regulations, Draft Report, Prepared for U.S. EPA, May 26, 2000, pp. 9-13.

Notes:

(a)    U.S. data for 1995; Canadian data for 2000, unless otherwise noted. Air releases unless otherwise noted.

(b)   Ontario data included releases for air and water while U.S. data include releases for water, land, and product (insufficient data available for making air emission estimate).

(c)    Includes pulp and paper mill sludge incineration.

NEG = Expected to be negligible (i.e. less that 1 gram per year) or non-existent.