Table 1 - Strategy Challenges

Canada

United States

Pesticides (chlordane, aldrin / dieldrin, DDT, mirex, and toxaphene) and OCS

Report by 1997, that there is no longer use, generation or release from Ontario sources that enter the Great Lakes of five bioaccumulative pesticides (chlordane, aldrin / dieldrin, DDT, mirex, and toxaphene), and of the industrial byproduct / contaminant octachlorostyrene. If ongoing, long-range sources of these substances from outside of Canada are confirmed, work within international frameworks to reduce or phase out releases of these substances.

Confirm by 1998 that there is no longer use or release from sources that enter the Great Lakes Basin of five bioaccumulative pesticides (chlordane, aldrin / dieldrin, DDT, mirex, and toxaphene), and of the industrial byproduct / contaminant octachlorostyrene. If ongoing, long-range sources of these substances from outside of the U.S. are confirmed, work within international frameworks to reduce or phase out releases of these substances.

Alkyl-lead

Seek by 2000, a 90 percent reduction in use, generation, or release of alkyl-lead consistent with the 1994 COA.

Confirm by 1998, that there is no longer use of alkyl-lead in automotive gasoline. Support and encourage stakeholder efforts to reduce alkyl-lead releases from other sources.

Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

Seek by 2000, a 90 percent reduction of high-level PCBs (>1 percent PCBs) that were once, or are currently, in service and accelerate destruction of stored high-level PCB wastes which have the potential to enter the Great Lakes Basin, consistent with the 1994 COA.

Seek by 2006, a 90 percent reduction nationally of high-level PCBs (>500 ppm) used in electrical equipment. Ensure that all PCBs retired from use are properly managed and disposed of to prevent accidental releases within or to the Great Lakes Basin.

Mercury

Seek by 2000, a 90 percent reduction in the release of mercury, or where warranted the use of mercury, from polluting sources resulting from human activity in the Great Lakes Basin. This target is considered as an interim reduction target and, in consultation with stakeholders in the Great Lakes Basin, will be revised if warranted, following completion of the 1997 COA review of mercury use, generation, and release from Ontario sources.

Seek by 2006, a 50 percent reduction nationally in the deliberate use of mercury and a 50 percent reduction in the release of mercury from sources resulting from human activity. The release challenge will apply to the aggregate of releases to the air nationwide and of releases to the water within the Great Lakes Basin. This challenge is considered an interim reduction target and, in consultation with stakeholders, will be revised if warranted, following completion of the Mercury Study Report to Congress.

Dioxins / Furans

Seek by 2000, a 90 percent reduction in releases of dioxins and furans from sources resulting from human activity in the Great Lakes Basin, consistent with the 1994 COA. Actions will focus on the 2,3,7,8 substitute congeners of dioxins and furans in a manner consistent with the TSMP (Toxic Substances Management Plan).

Seek by 2006, a 75 percent reduction in total releases of dioxins and furans (2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalents) from sources resulting from human activity. This challenge will apply to the aggregate of releases to the air nationwide and of releases to the water within the Great Lakes Basin.

Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)

Seek by 2000, a 90 percent reduction in releases of HCB and B(a)P from sources resulting from human activity in the Great Lakes Basin, consistent with the 1994 COA.

Seek, by 2006, reductions in releases that are within, or have the potential to enter the Great Lakes Basin, of HCB and B(a)P from sources resulting from human activity.

Level II Substances – U.S. and Canadian Challenge

Promote pollution prevention and the sound management of Level II substances, to reduce levels in the environment of those substances nominated jointly by both countries, and to conform with the laws and policies of each country, including pollution prevention, with respect to those substances nominated by only one country. Increase knowledge on sources and environmental levels of these substances.

Long-range Transport   U.S. and Canadian Challenge

Access atmospheric inputs of Strategy substances to the Great Lakes. The aim of this effort is to evaluate and report jointly on the contribution and significance of long-range transport of Strategy substances from world-wide sources. If ongoing long-range sources are confirmed, work within international frameworks to reduce releases of such substances.

Bottom Sediments   U.S. and Canadian Challenge

Complete or be well advanced in remediation of priority sites with contaminated bottom sediments in the Great Lakes Basin by 2006.

NOTE: For the U.S., the baseline from which reductions will be measured in most cases is the most recent and appropriate inventory, and is unique for each substance. For Canada, the baseline is defined by 1988 emissions inventory based on the Canadian Accelerated Reduciton / Elimination of Toxics (ARET) program.