D/F

Hg

HCB

OCS

B(a)P

alkyl-lead

PCBs

Pesticides

2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Armed forces (used in signal flares)

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

Automotive Manufacturing

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Backyard trash / open burning

x

x

x

P

x

 

P

 

Base metals smelting

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BioGas combustion

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carbon and graphite products

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

Cement kilns (hazardous waste burning)

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cement kilns (non-hazardous waste burning)

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chlor-alkali production/ chlorine mfg

 

x

x

P

 

 

 

 

Cigarette combustion

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coke production

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

Combustion of landfill gas in flares

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commercial / industrial boilers

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Converted Paper Products, n.e.c.

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

Crematoria

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dioxazine dyes and pigments (product)

x

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

Electrical equipment (transformers / capacitors)*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ethylene dichloride / vinyl chloride

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Federal facilities – incinerators

x

 

 

P

 

 

 

 

Ferric / Ferrous Chloride Use

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

Forest fires / wildfires

x

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

General laboratory Facilities

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

General Medical & Surgical Hospitals

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

Geothermal Power

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hazardous waste incinerators

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrochloric acid production

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

Industrial boilers / oil combustion

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Institutional / commercial heating

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iron sintering

x

x

x

P

 

 

 

 

Kraft liquor boilers (combustion)

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lamp Breakage

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Landfill fires

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Machinery Except Electrical, n.e.c.

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

Medical waste incineration

x

x

x

P

 

 

 

 

Mobile sources - non road

 

x

 

 

 

x

 

 

Mobile sources - on road

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

Municipal waste combustion

x

x

x

P

 

 

 

 

Natural processes

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pentachlorophenols mfg

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pesticide and herbicide use

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

Pesticide and agricultural chemicals mfg

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

Petroleum Refining

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

Portland Cement (non-hazardous waste fired)

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prescribed burning

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

Pulp and Paper Manufacturing

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Refuse Systems (waste incineration)

 

 

x

 

 

 

x

 

Residential boilers / fuel combustion

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Residential Heating, distallate oil combustion

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Residential wood combustion

x

 

 

P

x

 

 

 

Scrap metal recycling

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Secondary aluminum smelting

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Secondary copper smelting

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Secondary lead smelting

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sewage sludge incinerators

x

x

 

P

 

 

P

 

Sewage sludge land application

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sewerage Systems (STPs) / POTWs

 

x

x

 

x

 

x

 

Solid waste incinerators

 

x

 

P

 

 

 

 

Solid waste processing and transport

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steel manufacturing

x

x

x

P

x

 

 

 

Surface coating

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

Tires and Inner tubes

 

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

Treated wood**

x

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

Uncontrolled combustion of PCBs

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Use of Scrap Steel

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

Utilities / Power generation / coal combustion

x

x

 

P

 

 

 

 

Vehicle fuel combustion – diesel

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vehicle fuel combustion – unleaded

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wood preserving plants

x

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

Wood waste combustion

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

P = potential release

x = U.S. or Canadian inventory release from source

D/F = Dioxins / Furans

Hg - mercury

HCB = hexachlorobenzene

OCS = octachlorostyrene

B(a)P = benzo(a)pyrene

*sources include utilities, automotive, and steel manufacturing, among other sectors.

** including in service utility poles and railway ties; out of service utility poles (landfilled);

POTWs = Publicly owned treatment works