ADDITIONAL ISSUES
Views on Climate Change and Variability
The linkages to climate variability and change seem to be largely ignored. This is particularly a
concern for ozone. (4, 16) Since smog is due to emissions and climate change, there is a need
for context setting for climate change and ground level ozone. Formation of ozone is acceler-
ated by increases in air temperature and ultraviolet radiation.  In interpreting maps and
changes in ozone concentrations, as in figures 13, 14, 15 of the Progress Report, some idea of
changes in these driving factors, as well as the coverage of precursor emissions would be
instructive. From a climate change perspective, tropospheric ozone is estimated to be the
greenhouse gas providing the third largest increase in direct radiative forcing since pre-indus-
trial times (IPCC 3rd Assessment Report - The Scientific Basis). Further climate warming is likely
to lead to longer and more intense air pollution episodes in urban regions.  However, globally,
increases in average water vapour (already being observed) may tend to damp out global
increases in ozone. It is recognized that these effects are hard to quantify. Also an increase in
occurrence of hot days could increase biogenic and anthropogenic emissions of VOC’s from
increased evaporative emissions from fuel-injected automobiles. In short, it does not appear
reasonable to ignore climate variations and changes, nor UV changes, when considering local
and regional air pollution. However, since climate change is occurring, this reinforces the need
to reduce air pollution emissions. (4)
Views on Emissions From Fossil-Fueled Power Plants
In November 2002, the OPHA published “Beyond Coal: Power, Public Health and Environ-
ment” which articulated their concerns about the contribution of coal-fired power plants on
both sides of the Canada/U.S. border to air pollution, global climate change, acid rain and
mercury contamination of the food supply. They point out that air pollution is an enormous
problem in southwestern Ontario. The Windsor-Montreal corridor is recognized by all parties in
Canada as the one area of the country that may not be able to comply with the Canada Wide
Standard of 65 ppb for ground-level ozone by 2010. It is also an area that experiences exces-
sive levels of fine particulate matter on a frequent basis. Computer modelling suggests that a
significant percentage of the ozone and sulphates that affect air quality in southern Ontario
originates as nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxide in the United States, a large portion of which
are emitted from coal-fired power plants. It is also recognized that coal-fired power plants in
Ontario contribute to poor air quality and acid rain experienced by the U.S. states that are
downwind from Ontario. (21)
The Ontario Clean Air Alliance points out that Ontario’s efforts to control nitrogen oxide
emissions from coal fired power plants are not sufficient to meet the commitments contained in
the ozone Annex. Their views are summarized under the earlier section of this report entitled
Views On Annex 3 – Specific Objectives Concerning Ground-Level Ozone Precursors. These
views are shared by a number of respondents as identified in the earlier section.
10