bec, and 18 northeastern states. Cross border air pollution is also a vital issue for residents of
the Fraser Valley. The Fraser Valley Regional District strongly urges the governments of Canada
and the United States to amend the Ozone Annex to include the Lower Fraser Valley airshed as
a transboundary region in 2004. The importance of thermal electric power plants was cited as
a reason that underscored the importance of including this region in the Ozone Annex. (28)
The Stó:lô Nation, whose territory is located in southwestern British Columbia, refers to recent
studies on human health and agricultural impacts of ozone and smog. They also point out that
the pollutants of smog are producing adverse effects on the traditional herbages, botanicals
and berries of the people of the Stó:lô Nation. Plants that were once used for traditional
medicines or gathered for food stores are either becoming increasingly difficult to find or as the
Stó:lô people are discovering, the potency of their medicinal herbs is diminishing. (30)
VIEWS ON PARTICULATE MATTER
Several respondents urged Canada and the United States to focus more attention on particu-
late matter (PM) and to expedite the development of a PM Annex that would address health
impacts experienced on both sides of the border. The OPHA notes the clear and consistent
increases in non-traumatic deaths and hospital admissions that have been documented at daily
3
and PM  levels as low as 25 and 15 ug/m  respectively. These levels are frequently
PM
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2.5
exceeded in communities across southern Ontario (see page 21 & 22 of the OPHA report
“Beyond Coal”). They highlight the significant contribution of coal-fired power plants on both
sides of the border to air levels of particulate matter in southern Ontario. (21) The Ontario
Medical Association has done a lot to quantify the impact of ozone and particulate matter on
society and they suggest that there is a need to tighten ozone controls and to get on with a
particulate matter annex to the Agreement. (26)
The summer 2001 particulate monitoring in Georgian Bay area indicated measurements ap-
proaching or exceeding the proposed Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment
3
(CCME) Canada-wide standard of 30 µg/m . These levels were similar to fine particulate levels
measured in other southern Ontario sites and suggests that eastern Georgian Bay area can
experience high levels of fine particulate during smog episodes. The Georgian Bay Association
suggests that monitoring and reporting of PM need to begin in the eastern Georgian Bay area.
In addition, a deposition monitor near Parry Sound would help to identify acidic and toxic
deposits that may be contributing to the declining native fishery. (23)
The Fraser Valley Regional District points out that analysis of health research studies now
indicates that there is no “safe” ambient air level for fine particulates and ozone. Therefore,
health concerns should be paramount when considering cross border emission impacts. They
support the initiative to develop an Annex to the Air Quality Agreement on fine particulates,
similar in concept to the Ozone Annex. (28) The Stó:lô Nation indicates that even at low
concentrations of PM, such as those experienced in the Fraser Valley, there are potential risks
to human health. (30)
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