The Agreement was recognized as being very important to Atlantic Canada where air quality is
strongly influenced by transboundary air flows and long range transport of pollution from the
northeast United States as well as Ontario. The precautionary principle was promoted as the
trigger for significant action to reduce emissions. The New England Governors/Eastern Cana-
dian Premiers cooperative model was cited as a model for other regions of North America. (27)
There was also a call for governments to establish more controls on emissions, both from
power plants and from vehicles, including cars, trucks, sport utility vehicles and off-road
vehicles such as all-terrain vehicles and snowmobiles. Emissions for water craft also need more
control, especially water craft which not only send emissions into the air but also into the
water. (2)
There was also strong support expressed for expanding the scope of issues covered under the
Agreement to include mercury emissions and particulate matter. Although generally supportive
of the current efforts to include a particulate annex, there was encouragement for a more
aggressive timetable to include this matter under the Agreement. (26)
VIEWS ON ANNEX 1 –
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES CONCERNING SULPHUR DIOXIDE AND NITROGEN OXIDES
Respondents generally recognized the significant progress that has been achieved in reducing
sulphur dioxide emission levels. This is characterized as the signature achievement of the
Agreement, however the reductions have not been sufficient to fully restore lakes and rivers
and to protect health and the environment. (17) The Power Workers’ Union suggests that the
progress made shows that substantive improvements can be made while maintaining the value
inherent in existing generating stations. (29) On the other hand, respondents questioned the
statement that both countries continue to be on target for meeting reduction requirements for
SO  and NO  as not doing justice to the current state of affairs –  more reductions are required.
x
x
(27) The reporting of the success in reducing sulphate levels is, at best, incomplete. “Acid
deposition is seen as a success story as sulphate levels fall in most sensitive areas”, is an accu-
rate but woefully incomplete statement. It is now clear that the reductions achieved to date
have not been sufficient to protect or rehabilitate many sensitive areas. Both countries have to
do much more. (17, 27)
The role of nitrogen oxide emissions in both acidification and smog issues is recognized by the
parties. Revised goals for acidification, such as nitrogen critical loads, should be developed as
soon as possible to guide, not only assessments of transboundary issues as stated in the
Progress Report, but also action plans for greater NO  reduction levels. There needs to be
x
greater effort at all levels to reduce NO  emissions considering the role they play along with
x
VOCs in the formation of ozone/smog. (27)
The Power Workers’ Union indicates that Ontario Power Generation’s (OPG) emission reduction
program (representing an investment of $1.8 billion since 1984) recently announced an addi-
tional $250 million investment for the installation of selective catalytic reduction abatement
technology that will reduce nitrogen oxide emissions from the affected generating units by 80
percent. They suggest the fact that such significant improvements are achievable is critical when
one considers the economics of other proposed approaches to air quality improvement. For
instance, gas conversion would, according to the Ontario Clean Air Alliance, reduce nitrogen
4