(cadmium, chromium (VI) and mercury); volatile organic
crease the exposure of Windsor residents to airborne
compounds (VOCs-benzene, 1,3-butadiene, carbon
toxic chemicals, involving the community in the deci-
tetrachloride, 1,4-diclorobenzene, and formaldehyde);
sion-making process from their airshed, in a cost-
polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, including
benzo(a)pyrene); and semi-volatile organic compounds
(SVOCs specifically dioxins and furans).
There were two proposed components of this Study:
Of these ten chemicals, six were pollutants were selected
Scientific investigative studies, for which the Ontario
due to their higher potential risks in Windsor. These
MOE was responsible, and
chemicals include: cadmium, chromium, benzo(a)pyrene,
Remedial actions, for which the Windsor Air Quality
benzene, 1, 3-butadiene, and formaldehyde.
Committee (a local, multi-stakeholder group) was to
The findings of this study pertinent to this report
The Windsor Air Quality Study was designed to answer
the following questions:
risks from direct outdoor air exposure are apprecia-
bly less than those from indoor air exposure.
What are the airborne toxics which might cause
the range of additive cancer risks (calculated by
adding the risk for each compound) from all
What are the levels of airborne toxics in the airshed?
pollutants associated with outdoor air quality is
What are the major contributing sources for the
between 5 x 10 and 9.4 x 10 .
chemicals of concern?
What are the most significant exposure pathways for
Pollutants of Concern
the chemicals of concern?
In outdoor environments, the following pollutants
What are the relative health risks of Windsor
were of concern: chromium (VI), benzene, 1,3-
citizens resulting from exposure to airborne toxics?
butadiene, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons
(PAHs which include benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)),
Primary interest was placed answering the first three
carbon tetrachloride, cadmium, and 1,4-dichlo-
From June 1991 through March 1993, extensive field
Source of Pollutants
investigations were undertaken to answer the above
questions. The investigations included a detailed
74 percent of Windsors emissions are from area
compilation of pollutant emission rates in the Detroit/
sources (e.g. traffic, residential/commerical fuel
Windsor airshed, an intensified monitoring program and
combustion, and small industrial operations). Area
data analysis using mathematical models and an assess-
sources, particularly vehicular and fuel combustion
ment between levels known to be associated with health
sources, in Windsor-Detroit, dominate the contribu-
effects in humans and existing levels found in Windsor.
tion to ground level concentrations of benzene (84
percent), 1,3-butadiene (96 percent), and
The intense monitoring program involved data collec-
benzo(a)pyrene (99 percent) in Windsor.
tion based on emissions inventory, fixed site ambient air
monitoring, mobile air monitoring, personal exposure
Detroit and surrounding sources contribute about
measurements, and soil and crop produce survey. The
58 percent for cadmium, 65 percent for chromium,
data collected from the monitoring program was utilized
67 percent for benzo(a)pyrene, 67 percent for
in a mathematical model and to complete a health effect
benzene, and 76 percent for 1,3-butadiene.
Benzo(a)pyrene, was the only compound measured
in Windsor that exceeded the existing Ontarios air
Ten compounds were selected for an in-depth modeling
quality criterion. Sixty-seven percent of its concen-
and health effects investigation. These included metals