be especially harmful as they can be deposited
Epidemiological studies have found associations
further into the human lung, from which they are
between exposure levels and decreased lung func-
difficult to expel.  Particulate matter has been linked
tion, increased hospital admissions and emergency
to aggravated respiratory symptoms such as cough-
room visits, increased respiratory symptoms and
ing, chronic bronchitis, emphysema and decreased
disease and premature deaths (Ref. 14).
lung function (Ref. 13).
Standards/Criteria
TABLE 8
Standards (Michigan) / Criteria (Ontario) for Fine/Respirable Particulate Matter
Michigan (U.S. EPA NAAQS)
Pollutant
Primary (Health Related)
Secondary
3
Annual Arithmetic Mean
15 µg/m
same as Primary standard
PM
2.5
attained when annual average of  the
quarterly mean PM  concentration is
2.5
3
, when
less than or equal to 15 µg/m
averaged over three years.
th
3
24-hour-98  percentile
65 µg/m
attained when the 3-year average of
th
the 98  percentile 24-hour concentr-
3
ation is less than or equal to 65 µg/m
Ontario (MOE)
Pollutant
Criteria
3
24-hour averaging time, achievement to be
30 µg/m
PM
2.5
th
based on the 98  percentile annually
averaged over three consecutive years.
Province of  Ontario will comply with this
CWS standard by year 2010.
Lead
operations.  Battery manufacturing plants, particularly
automotive and similar types of  batteries, also contribute
lead to the environment (Ref. 15).
Lead is considered a Criteria pollutant in the United
States, where it is used as an indicator of  air quality.  The
Effects
Canadian AAQC is included to complete the compari-
Affects the human nervous system.  Exposure can
son of  the Criteria pollutants.
result in behavioral and learning disabilities; higher
concentration can cause seizure and possibly death
Formed
in humans.
lead is an element found in nature and a highly toxic
Children, 6 years old and younger, are most at risk.
metal
Degrades kidney function, impairs hemoglobin
synthesis and affects the nervous system.
Sources
Since the banning of  lead additives in gasoline, the
primary sources are from mining and metal smelting
12