be especially harmful as they can be deposited
Epidemiological studies have found associations
further into the human lung, from which they are
between exposure levels and decreased lung func-
difficult to expel. Particulate matter has been linked
tion, increased hospital admissions and emergency
to aggravated respiratory symptoms such as cough-
room visits, increased respiratory symptoms and
ing, chronic bronchitis, emphysema and decreased
disease and premature deaths (Ref. 14).
lung function (Ref. 13).
Standards (Michigan) / Criteria (Ontario) for Fine/Respirable Particulate Matter
Michigan (U.S. EPA NAAQS)
Primary (Health Related)
Annual Arithmetic Mean
same as Primary standard
attained when annual average of the
quarterly mean PM concentration is
less than or equal to 15 µg/m
averaged over three years.
attained when the 3-year average of
the 98 percentile 24-hour concentr-
ation is less than or equal to 65 µg/m
24-hour averaging time, achievement to be
based on the 98 percentile annually
averaged over three consecutive years.
Province of Ontario will comply with this
CWS standard by year 2010.
operations. Battery manufacturing plants, particularly
automotive and similar types of batteries, also contribute
lead to the environment (Ref. 15).
Lead is considered a Criteria pollutant in the United
States, where it is used as an indicator of air quality. The
Canadian AAQC is included to complete the compari-
Affects the human nervous system. Exposure can
son of the Criteria pollutants.
result in behavioral and learning disabilities; higher
concentration can cause seizure and possibly death
lead is an element found in nature and a highly toxic
Children, 6 years old and younger, are most at risk.
Degrades kidney function, impairs hemoglobin
synthesis and affects the nervous system.
Since the banning of lead additives in gasoline, the
primary sources are from mining and metal smelting