NOTES

  1. The Agreement defines "Parties" as "the Government of Canada and the Government of the United States of America." In this report, "governments" collectively refers to the two federal governments, the eight Great Lakes states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin and the province of Ontario.
  2. In March 1998, the Manistique Paper Company, on Lake Michigan, was recognized as the first chlorine-free paper mill in the Great Lakes basin.
  3. The definition of critical pollutant in Annex 2 of the Agreement is different from the 11 Critical Pollutants identified by the Water Quality Board in 1985. The Board's Critical Pollutants are polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (including DDE), dieldrin, toxaphene, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), mirex, mercury, alkylated lead, benzo(a)pyrene and hexachlorobenzene.
  4. Colborn et al., 1993.
  5. PCBs, the New Equilibrium? Workshop of the Great Lakes Science Advisory Board's Workgroup on Parties Implementation, held in Windsor, Ontario, September 10, 1996.
  6. Courval et al., 1997; Jacobson et al., 1984; Lonky et al., 1996; Tay et al., 1997; Jacobson and Jacobson, 1996a, 1996b; Hauser et al., 1998.
  7. See Johnson et al., and Public Health Implications of PCB Exposures. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, Georgia; and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., December 1996.
  8. The nine desired outcomes are fishability, swimability, drinkability, healthy human populations, economic viability, biological community integrity and diversity, virtual elimination of inputs of persistent toxic substances, absence of excess phosphorus and physical environment integrity.
  9. U.S. General Accounting Office, 1997; and Guerrero, 1998.
  10. Davies and Mazurek, 1997.
  11. Heaton, 1997.
  12. Greer and Sels, 1997.
  13. See Overcoming Obstacles to Sediment Remediation in the Great Lakes Basin, 1997.
  14. Identifying the Value-added Role of the IJC in Overcoming Obstacles to Sediment Remediation in the Great Lakes Basin. Workshop held in Collingwood, Ontario, June 1997.
  15. See, for example, Summary Report on the Workshop on Great Lakes Atmospheric Deposition, held October 29-31, 1986, at Scarborough, Ontario. Sponsored by the Great Lakes Science Advisory Board, Great Lakes Water Quality Board and International Air Quality Advisory Board. This report estimated that up to 90 per cent of the PCBs, 96 per cent of the benzo-a-pyrene and 97 per cent of the lead found in Lake Superior was deposited there as a result of atmospheric transport.
  16. See Deposition of Air Pollutants to the Great Waters, 1997.
  17. See The Great Lakes Binational Toxics Strategy. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes, 1997.
  18. An Agricultural Profile of the Great Lakes Basin: Characteristics and Trends in Production, Land-Use and Environmental Impacts, 1996.
  19. Schottler and Eisenreich, 1994.
  20. Documentation developed by the International Reference Group on Great Lakes Pollution from Land Use Activities (PLUARG) and follow-up Commission activities.
  21. Establishing Partnerships for Cost-effective Agricultural Pollution Prevention in the Great Lakes Basin: Practices and Partnerships. Workshop held August 1996. International Joint Commission.
  22. Pesticides: Examining Efficient and Cost Effective Agricultural Pollution Prevention. Workshop held August 1997. International Joint Commission.
  23. See An Agricultural Profile of the Great Lakes Basin: Characteristics and Trends in Production, Land-Use and Environmental Impacts. Project funded by the Great Lakes Protection Fund and presented at the Great Lakes Agricultural Summit, April 1996.
  24. See Beacons of Light, 1998.
  25. See Cole-Misch and Kirschner , 1996; Becker and Kirschner, 1996; Wingspread Conference: Funding Strategies for Restoration of Areas of Concern in the Great Lakes Basin. Summary Report, 1996; Position Statement on the Future of Great Lakes Remedial Action Plans, 1996; Pathways to Success: Workshops & Strategies for Sustaining RAP Public Advisory Committees. A Guidebook, 1996; Linking Local Watershed Management Efforts Across the Lake Ontario Basin, 1997; Lake Superior Stage 1 Lakewide Management Plan Review; Detroit River Area of Concern Status Assessment, 1997; Beacons of Light, 1998.
  26. See 1995-97 Priorities and Progress under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. 1997.
  27. The Incidence and Severity of Sediment Contamination in Surface Waters of the United States. 3 volumes. 1997.
  28. See Michigan Department of Environmental Quality, 1997.
  29. See New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, 1995.
  30. Cohen et al., 1995.
  31. See A Policy Statement on the Incineration of Municipal Waste, 1996.
  32. Commoner et al., 1996.
  33. Pearson et al., 1997.
  34. See Emissions of Dioxins in the Netherlands, 1996.
  35. See The Mercury Study: Report to Congress, 1997; Davidson et al., 1995; and Myers et al., 1997.
  36. See The Mercury Study: Report to Congress, 1997.
  37. See The Status of Mercury in Canada, 1996.
  38. See The Mercury Study: Report to Congress, 1997.
  39. See The Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units. Final Report to Congress, 1998.
  40. See Inventory of Radionuclides for the Great Lakes, 1997.
  41. See The IJC and the 21st Century,1997.
  42. See 1995-97 Priorities and Progress under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, 1997; Daily, 1997; Prugh, 1995; and Costanza et al., 1996.