To protect environmental gains achieved to date, better
Advice and Recommendations of the Great
track current issues, and identify emerging trends, the
Lakes Water Quality Board
WQB recommends the following to the IJC:
The Water Quality Board will continue to track both the
Recommend that the two federal governments
Lake Erie and the Type E botulism issues.  The WQB offers
support core funding for a necessary and suffi-
the following advice now.
cient surveillance and monitoring program.
The level of funding for research reflects the high level of
The WQB is impressed by the high level of cooperation and
commitment by the Parties to determine what changes are
timely information sharing among investigators for the
occurring in Lake Erie and, more importantly, why.  The
Type E botulism issue.  Such networking is essential to
findings should help inform program and policy decisions.
characterize issues and develop scientific information to
The WQB supports additional research that may be
inform program and policy decisions.  The level of funding
required, in light of findings from the present work.
appears to be adequate at present for U.S.-based programs,
but insufficient for Canadian work, as testing and monitor-
The WQB recommends the following to the IJC:
ing compete for resources for other threats such as the
West Nile virus.  It is anticipated that U.S. programs will
Recommend that the Parties earmark adequate
also face such funding competition.  Continued funding for
funding to support additional research required to
research also is required to answer key scientific questions.
characterize changes in Lake Erie and to inform
program and policy decisions.
The WQB recommends the following to the IJC:
The WQB is concerned about the uncertainty associated
Recommend that the U.S. and Canadian federal
with phosphorus loadings to Lake Erie and, indeed, the
governments continue funding for investigative
other Great Lakes.  Particularly uncertain are loadings
programs for Type E botulism that will inform
associated with land runoff.  This is the direct result of past
policy and program decisions.
cutbacks in surveillance and monitoring programs.  As a
result of those cutbacks, large portions of the drainage
The WQB notes the apparent link of alien invasive species
basin are unmonitored, and other portions are under-
to both the Lake Erie and the Type E botulism issues.  In its
monitored, so that major events, such as storms, which
previous advice in 2001, the WQB observed the environ-
contribute large amounts of nutrients and other contami-
mental and economic consequences of alien invasive
nants, are not measured.  There is a need to assess the level
species, especially zebra and quagga mussels, and is
of support for watershed, tributary, and in-lake monitoring
concerned about future, potentially more devastating
consequences, unless definitive action is taken now to
protect the Great Lakes from future invasions.  The WQB
continues to express concern about the lack of progress to
implement affective ballast water treatment.