Principle 9
Strategies for Urban Watersheds
Minimize Parking and Treat Storm-water   Parking
(>25 percent Impervious Cover)
lots, especially surface lots, should be minimized and
designed to reduce, store and treat storm-water runoff.
Principle 1
Where site limitations or other considerations prevents
Conduct Environmental Assessments. Redevelop-
full parking lot runoff management, designs should
ment and infill planning should include environmental
target high use areas first.
site assessments that protect existing natural resources
and identify opportunities for restoration, where
Principle 10
Design Streetscapes to Treat Storm-water  Design
the streetscape to minimize, capture and reuse storm-
Principle 2
water runoff. Where possible, provide planting spaces
Protect and Restore Natural Areas.  Plan and design
which promote the growth of healthy streets trees so
naturally vegetated areas and to encourage re-vegeta-
that they can capture and treat storm-water runoff. In
tion, soil restoration and the utilization of native and
arid climates, xeriscapes should be used to achieve
non-invasive plants where feasible.
similar benefits.
Principle 3
Principle 11
Maintain Natural Areas in the Long-term.   Establish
Practice Pollution Prevention.  Utilize proper
mechanisms to guarantee long-term management and
storage, handling and site design techniques to avoid
maintenance of all vegetated areas.
the contact of pollutants with storm-water runoff.
Principle 4
Make efficient use of Impervious Cover.  Sites
should be designed to utilize impervious cover
Proposed “Smart Watersheds” Programs
efficiently and to minimize storm-water runoff. Where
for Municipalities
possible, the amount of impervious cover should be
reduced or kept the same. In situations where impervi-
To ensure that any localized degradation caused by
ous cover does increase, sites should be designed to
redevelopment and infill within urban watershed are more
improve the quality of storm-water runoff at the site or
than compensated by stream quality improvements
in the local watershed.
achieved by municipal restoration efforts, the Center for
Watershed Protection has proposed a minimum level of
Principle 5
municipal effort known as smart watersheds.  Specifically,
Employ Better Site Design on infill projects to
smart watersheds refers to 17 public sector programs that
maximize storm-water runoff and maximize vegetated
treat storm water runoff, restore urban stream corridors
and reduce pollution discharges from highly urban
watersheds (CWP 2003). The major elements of a smart
Principle 6
watershed program are profiled below.
Maximize Transportation Choices. Design sites to
maximize transportation choices in order to reduce
Program 1
vehicle miles travelled and improve air and water
Active Small Watershed Restoration Planning and
Implementation.  A smart watershed program
engages in small watershed restoration efforts to
Principle 7
ensure that  any localized degradation caused by
Manage Rooftop Runoff. Manage rooftop runoff
individual redevelopment and infill projects are more
through storage, re-use, and/or redirection to pervious
than compensated by improvements in overall
surfaces for storm-water management and other
watershed health.  Specifically, a smart watershed
environmental benefits
program seeks to implement restoration projects over
a watershed area that exceeds the total watershed area
Principle 8
affected by infill and redevelopment projects.
Design Courtyards/Plazas for Storm-water Treat-
ment. Design courtyards, plazas and amenity open
Program 2
space to store, filter or treat rainfall. Examples include
Subwatershed Mapping and Analysis.  A smart
alternative pavers, bioretention and storm-water
watershed  program will delineate and map all
subwatersheds within the municipality on a GIS