Great Lakes basin and implications for water quality.   This
In summary, the consultant’s work supported the concept
summary was followed by a short presentation by each
that lower density development patterns result in increased
invited speaker addressing three questions:
per capita impervious surface, vehicular distance traveled,
storm-water runoff and pollutant loadings and that
What is the ideal urban form to minimize land-use
additional research is needed to better understand the links
impacts on water quality?
between urbanization, urban form and water quality
How could it be attained?
impacts.  Studies that would build on the consultant’s work
What are the policy implications?
include:
A roundtable discussion focused on the development of
a study of per capita discharges from different urban
policy recommendations for the IJC and the Parties.  It was
forms, such as dense urban areas, newly developing
clear from these discussions that this issue has immediate
low-density areas at the urban fringe and new urbanist/
relevance for many sections of the Great Lakes Water
cluster development;
Quality Agreement, in particular:
a study of impacts from chronic (sewage treatment
plants) versus sporadic (storm-water runoff) dis-
Article VI– Pollution from Municipal Sources and Pollution
charges into Great Lakes and tributaries; a study of
from Industrial Sources
wastewater treatment plant conditions, maintenance
Annex 1
– Specific Objectives
and improvement needs and costs based on popula-
Annex 2
– RAPs and LaMPs
tion and urbanization projections; and
Annex 3
– Control of Phosphorus
examination and documentation of impervious surface
Annex 10
– Hazardous Polluting Substances
coverage in the six city-regions and other urbanizing
Annex 11
– Surveillance and Monitoring
areas in the Great Lakes basin.
Annex 12
– Persistent Toxic Substances
Annex 13
– Pollution from Nonpoint Sources
Annex 14
– Contaminated Sediments
3.2.4
Workshop on the  Impact of Urban and
Annex 15
– Airborne Toxic Substances
Urbanizing Development on Great Lakes
Annex 16
– Contaminated Groundwater
Water Quality
On January 8, 2003, the Parties Implementation Work
3.2.5
Workshop Participants’ Deliberations and
Group of the SAB held a workshop to discuss the impact of
Policy Recommendations
urban and urbanizing development on Great Lakes water
quality.  The workshop was intentionally small in scope and
Patterns of Population Growth and Urban Develop-
was limited to members of the work group, members of
ment in the Great Lakes Basin, 2002-2020
other IJC advisory boards (the Water Quality Board, the
International Air Quality Advisory Board, and the Council
Evidence presented by the consultants and the invited
of Great Lakes Research Managers), the work group’s
speakers underscored the rapid urbanization now occur-
consultant, GHK International, and five invited keynote
ring in parts of the Great Lakes basin.  In Chicago, for
speakers.  These speakers were:
example,  population growth approached 12 percent
John Sewell, former Mayor of Toronto, Chair of the
between 1990 and 2000, while in Toronto, between 1992-
Commission on Planning and Development Reform in
1997, the population grew 13.8 percent .  Population in
Ontario
these major centres is expected to increase steadily over the
Larry Bourne, Professor and Director of the Centre for
next 20 years.  In Chicago, that growth is estimated at 7
Urban and Community Studies, Department of
percent between 2000 and 2010, slowing to 4 percent
Geography, University of Toronto
between 2010 and 2020; in Toronto, population is ex-
Tom Schueler, Director, Center for Watershed Protec-
pected to increase by 16 percent between 2000 and 2011,
tion, Ellicott City, MD
with a further 10 percent between 2011 and 2021.  Overall,
Lawrence Libby, C. William Swank Professor of Rural-
GHK estimates that a further 3.3 million people will be
Urban Policy, Ohio State University
added to the six case study cities by 2020.  The link to Great
G. William Page, Professor, Department of Urban and
Lakes water quality from these population increases is
Regional Planning, University of Buffalo, State Univer-
related to the type of development that occurs to accom-
sity of New York
modate more people.  If the development is of a traditional
urban design (relatively dense, mixed use, grid street
The workshop began with a summary of the consultants’
pattern) the water quality impacts will be primarily from
background research, which focused on forecast and
increased demands on sewage treatment plants with
analysis of urban development six case city-regions in the
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