state governments.  No single entity oversees each Reme-
dial Action Plan, which raises questions of responsibility
and accountability for ensuring that necessary remedial
actions are accomplished.  The absence of active engage-
ment by the state of Michigan with the Rouge River and
Detroit River Remedial Action Plans was particularly noted,
but this may have reflected the state’s view that Remedial
Action Plans are a federal responsibility.
Michigan has participated with the Clinton River Remedial
Action Plan, but a number of different people have held the
liaison position over the past few years, and the current
representative is assisting with multiple Remedial Action
Plans throughout the state.  The U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency has recently assigned a liaison with the
others already know.  Suitable mechanisms are required to
Clinton River Remedial Action Plan.
ensure that all who are involved with Remedial Action Plans
have ready access to relevant information, knowledge, and
Local groups are well suited to undertake ground up
experience of others.
planning, but the state of Michigan and the U.S. federal
government must actively engage in order to:
The WQB recognizes that information and knowledge
management and corporate memory is a major challenge,
ensure properly formulated and focused plans that
but one that requires direction at the federal level.  The WQB
meet not only local goals but also state and federal
acknowledges that a number of mechanisms are being used
regulatory requirements and Agreement goals;
to manage and transfer information and knowledge, for
facilitate coordination and cooperation among the
example, binational workshops that focus on a particular
multiplicity of communities and local agencies that
beneficial use impairment, the WQB’s various guidance
comprise each Area of Concern; and
reports such as for the assessment and remediation of
ensure ownership and accountability for both Reme-
contaminated sediment, and the Remedial Action Plan
dial Action Plan development and, more importantly,
workshops held in conjunction with the IJC’s biennial
implementation of remedial measures.
meetings.  Other opportunities may be worth consideration,
for example, an easily updatable loose-leaf handbook or
orientation package that provides what one needs to know,
or the DREAMS (Data Retrieval, Exchange, Archiving and
No  single  entity  oversees  each  Remedial  Action
Management System) program developed for the Detroit
Plan, which raises questions of responsibility and
River, or a web-based communication network along the
lines of that in place for the botulism issue.
accountability for ensuring that necessary remedial
actions are accomplished.
Another suggestion to facilitate information sharing, plan-
ning, and implementation of remedial actions is to adopt a
“corridor approach” that links the St. Clair River, Clinton
River, Detroit River, Rouge River, and River Raisin Areas of
The need for more active engagement by the federal, state,
Concern with the Lake Erie Lakewide Management Plan.
and provincial governments may also apply to other Areas
of Concern.  This may be a topic for consideration by the
The WQB believes that information and knowledge manage-
IJC’s Annex 2 Task Force.
ment is a suitable topic for consideration by the IJC’s Annex
2 Task Force.
Another issue that applies across the basin is information
and knowledge management and corporate memory.
Remedial Action Plan personnel at the local, state / provin-
Advice and Recommendations of the Great
cial, and federal levels are not necessarily aware of scientific
Lakes Water Quality Board
and technical information that may be relevant to define or
understand problems or to implement solutions.  This is
The WQB concludes that engagement, direction and funding
particularly true when knowledgeable people leave and
by the federal and state governments are required to promote
new people arrive.  As a result, a considerable amount of
further progress to restore and protect the Rouge, Clinton,
time is spent on learning curves and re-discovering what
and Detroit rivers.