locations to better understand potential neuro-
There is great variation in mercury methylation between
developmental effects associated with mercury
lakes.  Those lakes that have fish and wildlife species that
and co-contaminants such as PCBs.
are at high risk or low risk should be identified.
Recommend that the Parties undertake investiga-
Risk management and risk communication decisions,
tions of sediments and nearshore soils in Areas of
which logically follow risk assessment findings, should
Concern where mercury levels in fish are elevated
consider the health benefits from eating fish and wildlife
and where current or historical industrial sources
and the adverse health effects that could result from
of mercury have been identified.
attempts to limit consumption or to significantly alter
consumption patterns.  The potential consequences of
advice to limit consumption may have negative implica-
1.3.3
Mercury Consensus Workgroup
tions not only in terms of nutrition, but may also contribute
to socio-economic, cultural and life style disruption and
these can have additional adverse effects on health.
J. Milton Clark, Ph.D.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Realities of subsistence living, particularly among the
Region 5, Chicago
aboriginal populations should be brought into the risk
management equation.  Communication approaches that
Donna Mergler, Ph.D.
are sensitive to cultural and socio-economic concerns,
University of Quebec, Montreal
need to be developed in consultation with First Nations.
The benefits of fish consumption should also be communi-
Laurie Chan, Ph.D.
cated, placing emphasis on those fish that have the most
McGill University
benefit (e.g. Omega-3 fatty acids) and lowest levels of
Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec
toxicants.
Luke Trip
Consensus Recommendations
Senes Consulting, Ottawa
The following Consensus Recommendations were formu-
Christopher DeRosa, Ph.D.
lated by the Mercury Consensus Workgroup and are
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
endorsed by the Science Advisory Board.
Atlanta, Georgia
The SAB recommends the following to the IJC.
Annette Ashizawa,, Ph.D.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Recommend that the Parties apply powerful, large
Atlanta, Georgia
scale modeling and monitoring techniques to
estimate the contribution of mercury from specific
Henry Anderson, MD
sources emitted to the atmosphere and subse-
Wisconsin Department of Health and Family Services
quently transported and deposited into the Great
Madison, Wisconsin
Lakes. More detailed information on mercury
emissions, including the chemical species of
mercury is required to refine these estimates and
more effectively target activities for reduction of
mercury concentrations in the Great Lakes.
Recommend that the Parties further reduce
mercury emissions, including those from coal
combustion, because mercury levels in fish are
still above levels to fully protect human health and
wildlife and because there are over 2,000 fish
consumption advisories for mercury in the United
States and the province of Ontario.
Recommend that the Parties undertake prospec-
tive and retrospective epidemiological studies of
high intake fish consumers and their infants in
Areas of Concern and other Great Lakes area
20