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Maintain or increase regional and national monitoring of hydrologic information, assess aquifer
extent, ground water availability and the impact of climate change on recharge and evapotranspira-
tion.
9.2
UNDERSTANDING MICROBIAL POLLUTION AND UNMONITORED CHEMICAL
CONTAMINANTS IN THE GREAT LAKES BASIN
Recommend to the Parties that the following types of research/surveillance be conducted:
­
Determine the prevalence of selected enteric microbial pathogens, and microbial toxins, such as
cyanobacterial toxins, in the Great Lakes.
­
Identify sources of microbial pathogens to waters used for human consumption or recreation, such as
from ships’ ballast; wastewater treatment plant effluent, storm water and agricultural feedlot runoff;
boating wastes—gray and black water; and  septic systems.
­
Develop testing methods and procedures for information exchange to facilitate identification of
pathogens in environmental samples and enable that data to be compared with reports of disease
outbreaks.
­
Study the environmental ecology of pathogens in aquatic systems to find ways to disrupt their distri-
bution and life cycles before they can cause disease in humans.
­
Determine the significance of recreational and occupational water exposure to/in the development of
gastrointestinal illness and identify risk factors.
­
Develop strategies and priorities for remediation, such as the appropriate discharge of ballast water
or black and gray waters, based on identified risk factors.
­
Determine the prevalence and persistence of these pathogens before and after extreme weather
events, and as a result of long-term climate change, such as lower lake levels or higher temperatures.
Recommend to the Parties that the following types of research/surveillance be conducted:
­
Examine the output of these chemicals from wastewater and drinking water treatment plants.
­
Summarize the actual levels of these constituents detected in water  supplies and compare these
values to their reference or effect levels; or determine their effect levels, if unknown.
­
Determine if there are biotic indicators of the effects or presence of these chemicals.
­
Conduct experimental analyses of degradation times for these chemicals under natural conditions.
­
Determine if wastewater or drinking water treatment processes can be
changed to reduce or
remove these chemicals.
9.3
GREAT LAKES - ST. LAWRENCE RESEARCH INVENTORY
Recommend to the Parties that organizations granting funds for Great Lakes research be encouraged to
routinely utilize the Great Lakes – St. Lawrence Research Inventory as a tool to identify gaps in current
Great Lakes research and that researchers/managers be provided with incentives to participate.
9.4
SCIENCE VESSEL COORDINATION
The International Joint Commission continue its strong support for annual science vessel coordination
workshops.
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